Lipid DomainSelective Assembly of LH and LHRC

Figure 4 shows the stepwise assembly of an LH2 LH1-RC-coexisting planar membrane (A-D). An anionic DMPG giant vesicle suspension was applied onto an APS-coverglass to provide a planar bilayer patch via electrostatic interaction (step A-B). Subsequently, on the addition of a cationic EDOPC vesicle containing LH2 on the surface, the vesicle selectively fused with the DMPG-membrane patch (C). Finally, a DOPG LH1-RC proteoliposome solution was applied onto an uncovered area of the APS-coverglass,...

The Design and MHD by Shape of Blanket

We investigated the design of blanket for LiPb of high temperature at the outlet of loop. Conditions of calculation in Fig. 2 were as the following Total thickness of blanket was 54.5 cm, Thickness of LiPb was 50 cm, Xi concentration rate was 90 , TBR was 1.2, Inlet temperature of LiPb was 300 C and Inlet temperature of He was 300 C 7 . Figure 4 is the outlet temperature of LiPb loop by each He velocity and d1 in Fig. 2. It can obtain high outlet temperature of LiPb as decreasing d1 and...

Analyzing Peak Time Impact of Wind Power

For the convenience of our analysis, both the power curve of a wind turbine and wind speed at the national level is simulated with certain constraints. Wind speed data for the areas of Youngdeok, Jeju-hanrim, Saemangeum, Seosan, and Samcheok from Sep. 12, 2000 to Sep. 11, 2000 from the wind map of KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) is selected for such purposes. For practical simulation, 365 x 5 random numbers are created first to select 365 days' wind speed patterns for 24-h intervals....

Assumptions for Simulation

Based on the 3rd Master Plan of Electric Power Demand and Supply (2006) announced by the Ministry of Knowledge and Economy, an estimation of hourly patterns of electric power demand is performed. Yearly and hourly data of electric power generation are estimated using hourly power demand data from 2008 with reference to the standard load factor reported in the National Energy Master Plan (2008). A load factor of 76.1 is applied to calculate peak load for the 10-year period of 2020-2030. The...

Wind Power Generations Impact on Peak Time Demand and on Future Power

Abstract Although wind power is regarded as one of the ways to actively respond to climate change, the stability of the whole power system could be a serious problem in the future due to wind power's uncertainties. These uncertainties include intermittency and the fact that wind power cannot be relied upon to supply energy on demand, including and especially during periods of peak demand. From this perspective, the peak-time impact of stochastic wind power generation is estimated using a...

Challenges of Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation

The previous section elaborated the benefits resulting from DG. However, DG systems certainly entail costs. Here are the major issues high financial cost economic efficiency environmental protection energy security power quality, including system frequency and voltage level and connectivity issues. Other than that, the lack of supporting institutions and infrastructures in Indonesia also creates difficulties in implementing DG. As mentioned before, in the case of rural electrification the...

Opportunities of Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation

In February 2006, the government of Indonesia enacted Presidential Decree No. 5 2006 for National Energy Policy. In this policy, the share of new and renewable energies in energy mix will be increased from around 5 in 2007 to more than 17 in 2025, which are composed of bio-fuel (5 ), geothermal (5 ), coal liquefaction (2 ), and others, including nuclear (5 ). Supporting the policy, abundant resources are already available in Indonesia. Table 1 summarizes the national energy potency of...

Implications and Conclusions

Korean experiences show that it takes several years to train an operator and Vietnam may need over ten years to train nuclear experts in order to master the nuclear technology. Moreover, it is uncertain whether foreign countries can help Vietnam train real nuclear experts, especially whether they can transfer nuclear know-how to Vietnam. As a result, it is likely that Vietnam will be dependent on foreign technology and that may lead to economic dependence and even to safety problems. In...

Korean Experiences

In 2007, Korea's final energy consumption was about sevenfold that of Vietnam's with 180.54 MTOE 1 . Korea is highly dependent on foreign sources for its energy needs. In particular, its high reliance on the Middle East for oil and natural gas makes Korea vulnerable to international energy crises. In response, the Korean government has promoted a policy of decreasing the dependence on petroleum and increasing the use of LNG, nuclear energy and bituminous coal in an effort to stabilize energy...

The Challenge of Sustainable Energy Supply

Energy demand and energy supply gap Vietnam is a net exporter of energy with 15 million tons of crude oil and 31 million tons of coal exported in 2007. In fact, the country has imported oil products because the first refinery plant has just begun operations this year. Recently, due to a shortage of electricity, Vietnam had to import power from China amounting to 550 MW in 2007. Moreover, Vietnam has also imported about 200,000 tons of fat coal per year for industry production for the last three...

Introduction

Energy security can be defined as the adequacy, reliability and affordability of energy supply to support the functioning of the economy and social development. In other worlds, energy security is the provision of sufficient energy to support economic and social activity with minimal disruption and at reasonable prices. Vietnam, a country that has emerged as one of the most active economies in the world in recent economic history, is also facing a visible set of challenges relating to energy...

The Role of Nuclear Power in Energy Security and Climate Change in Vietnam

Dinhlong Do, Il Hwan Ahn, and Suduk Kim Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of nuclear power in terms of energy security and climate change in Vietnam. To facilitate comparison with Vietnam's energy development plan, the paper also discusses the Korean experience from various perspectives past history of nuclear energy supply among other energy sources, energy consumption, energy policy and nuclear power development, consumer reactions and corporate social responsibility....

Wind TUrbine and Result

Figure 2 shows that the offshore-wind turbine individual simulation output using PSCAD EMTDC 3 . It shows the real power (PwindMW) and the mechanical torque (Tmwindpu) of the offshore-wind turbine, also the AC voltage line to line (Vwind-L-L (RMS) kV). The per-unit machine speed is controlled to be 1.014 per-unit constant throughout the simulation. The design parameters of the wind turbine are listed in Table 1. As shown Fig. 2, the wind generator is in starting up condition until 0.9 s. Wind...

Analyzing the Impact of Wind Power on Power Mix Using SCM

An analysis of stochastic wind power generation and its impact on the power mix is performed using the typical method of SCM (Fig. 1). SCM is used to identify the Table 1 Estimated investment cost required for each power company in 2030 (unit million dollars year, Exchange rate 1,300 won ) KOSEP KOMIPO Western Power KOSPO EWP Kwater GS Power GSEPS Others 1,760 5,046 4,534 5,353 4,805 197 2,218 1,109 617 appropriate power mix by identifying the intersections among least-cost energy sources for...

Contents

What Can We Learn from Photosynthesis About Richard J. Cogdell, Katsunori Nakagawa, Masaharu Kondo, Mamoru Nango, and Hideki Hashimoto Renaissance of Nuclear Energy in the USA Opportunities, Eco-Friendly Production of Biodiesel by Utilizing Solid Base Catalysis of Calcium Oxide for Reaction to Convert Vegetable y-Ferric Oxide Carbon Composite Synthesized by Aqueous Solution Method as a Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries 31 Morphology Control of TiO2-Based Nanomaterials New Material Processing...

The Impact of Wind Power Generation on Wholesale Electricity Price at Peak Time Demand in Korea

Seunghyun Ryu, Shinyoung Um, and Suduk Kim Abstract In this paper, wind power is analyzed to see its impact on wholesale electricity price or SMP System Marginal Price at peak time under the consideration of the stochastic characteristics of its power generation. For this purpose, future power supply curve is estimated considering future fuel price for power and the construction and decommission of power plant's plan. Future oil price is assumed to follow EIA's future oil price scenario and the...

Tidal Turbine and Result

Figure 3 shows that the tidal turbine individually simulation output using PSCAD EMTDC. The tidal turbine models were modified from wind turbine IEEE models available in the PSCAD master library 3 . It shows the real power P WMW and mechanical torque Tmtidalpu of the turbine, also with the tidal AC voltage line to line V RMS kV . The design parameters of the tidal turbines are listed in Table 2. Figure 3 shows that the tidal turbine individually simulation output using PSCAD EMTDC. The tidal...

Ferric Oxide Carbon Composite Synthesized by Aqueous Solution Method as a Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

Jcpds 1346

Abstract Iron oxide is one of the most promising materials as an electrode of lithium-ion batteries due to its low toxicity and low cost. In this study, composites of nano-sized g-ferric oxide y-Fe2O3 and carbon material is synthesized by aqueous solution method, which is generally conducted at low cost. Acetylene black AB or ketjen black KB is adopted for the carbon component in the composite. These composites y-Fe2O3 AB and y-Fe2O3 KB are examined as cathodes of lithium-ion batteries and they...

Renaissance of Nuclear Energy in the USA Opportunities Challenges and Future Research Needs

White Queen Quotes

Abstract The future of nuclear energy is an important issue for many countries intending to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and achieve the reduction targets for green house gas GHG emissions. As of June, 2008, there were 439 operating nuclear reactors with a total generating capacity of 372 GWe and 42 power reactors under construction in 15 countries. In the USA, a total of 104 nuclear reactors currently produce 20 of the electricity and account for at least 70 of all GHG-free...

Reconstitution of Photosynthetic Membrane Proteins into Liposomes

Figure 1 shows the absorption spectra of LH2 A and LH1-RC B in a Tris buffer solution 20 mM pH 8.0, 0.1w LDAO dashed line and in a reconstituted lipo-somal membrane dotted line . The characteristic absorption bands attributed to Qy of bacteriochlorophyll a in these proteins are essentially identical in both conditions. The LH2 complexes reconstituted into the lipid bilayer can be successfully visualized with high resolution AFM. When the liposomal solution containing reconstituted LH2 was...

DC Connected Hybrid Offshore Wind and Tidal Turbine Generation System

Mohammad Lutfur Rahman and Yasuyuki Shirai Abstract Hybrid Offshore-wind and Tidal Turbine HOTT generation system Rahman and Shirai, HOTT energy Conversion I 6-pulse GTO rectifier and inverter , 2008 HOTT energy conversion II 6-Pulse GTO Rectifier DC connection and Inverter , 2009 interconnecting method for a DC side cluster of wind and tidal turbine generators system are proposed. This method can be achieved using wind and tidal turbine generating system. Four tidal and a wind turbines...

Results and Discussion

Marine Pollution 2011 Simple Bar Graphs

RNP receptors for dopamine were isolated from an RNP library by in vitro selection method as previously reported 3, 5 . In each round of selection, an RNP pool was incubated with a dopamine-immobilized agarose resin. After removal of unbound RNP fraction, a bound RNP fraction were recovered by specific elution with free dopamine. An ethanolamine-agarose resin was utilized in the negative selection step of dopamine, respectively. The bound RNA fractions were collected, reverse transcribed and...

Raman Spectroscopy of SiClTmhatfsa Electrolytes

Raman Spectra

First of all, the dissolved state of silicon chloride species in TMHATFSA was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Figure 1 summarizes the results of peak separation for the vx symmetric stretch mode of SiCl4. It exhibits almost no influence of TMHATFSA on the peak position and width for the vx mode of SiCl4 in the electrolyte solutions. It means that silicon chloride species exists mainly as SiCl4 molecules in TMHATFSA without making bonds with other molecules to form complexes, polymers, or...