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Like many other workers, you have probably fantasized about working from home. You dread the commute because of the stress and the time that it takes to get yourself to and from the office. On top of that, working out there in the world requires you to deal with lots of personalities and loads of work related drama. Who hasn’t listened to their co-worker's gossip about one another, or list their complaints about their lot in life? It's more than enough to wish we could get away from it all.
Powerful desk- and laptop computers and computer network technology have made it possible for a significant and increasing fraction of the total white-collar workforce to work at home or in other locations outside conventional workplaces. Interest in telecommuting as a possible means of conserving energy and saving transportation costs was sparked by the oil crisis of the early 1970s (Nilles, Carlson, Gray, & Hanneman, 1976a, 1976b). Like teleconferencing, telecommuting has the advantage, from an environmental point of view, of significantly decreasing the need for travel. In theory, at least, Many people are now spending either all or part of their work time at home. Some function as consultants or freelancers, but many are also employees of corporations or government organizations. According to one estimate, 3 million employees of American companies were in this category as of 1995, and this number was increasing by about 20 per year (Jaroff, 1995). There are many obvious advantages...
Travel to another country permanently to seek employment or escape from civil conflict is a particularly vulnerable time for the individual and the family. Refugees, in particular, need extra help, but sometimes this can be misplaced and the situation made worse. During the Cambodian crisis, water containers were provided to households in refugee camps along the Thai border, but these proved to be excellent breeding places for Aedes mosquitoes, with the result that there were large outbreaks of dengue. In Tanzania, refugees were settled in a large uninhabited forest area, which was infested with tsetse flies, so soon cases of sleeping sickness began to appear. Refugee health has become a subject in its own right and communicable diseases are one of the
Cars are fast and easy but they also fill the atmosphere with greenhouse gases and contribute to obesity from lack of exercise. Cars are an addiction they shape our cities to meet their needs. Most urban areas in the United States have been shaped by the automobile to such a degree that, for most people, any other transportation option is unavailable, unappealing, or impossible. To combat global warming, we will eventually have to reshape our cities. The ultimate solution is to work at home (that cuts commute time and energy consumption to zero), a solution that is becoming more appealing. Many book publishers, for example, now use virtual networks with people across the country, many of whom work at home, linked by digital technology. The next best option is to live close enough to the office to sharply reduce or eliminate one's commuting carbon footprint.
Permitting employees to occasionally work from home does not require a special support team. These workers use the same tools and processes and report to the same supervisor as during the rest of the week. However, a permanent virtual work force requires an in-house support organization to smooth out routine issues that arise.
IT professionals who are working from home requires a dedicated space similar in size and equipment to an office. Before trying to work from home, ensure that there is an adequate dedicated area for spreading out papers around a computer and printer. Home offices should be as Green as the primary work place. Used toner and inkjet cartridges, used equipment, and used paper should all be properly recycled.
There are wide-ranging views about the prospects for India's economic growth. We present here a High Growth Scenario1 to illustrate the potential impact on energy demand and energy-related emissions of higher economic growth than that assumed in the Reference Scenario. For India's economy to grow faster, acceleration and deepening of structural, institutional and market reforms would be needed, accompanied by more rapid infrastructure development. Perhaps the greatest uncertainty surrounding the outlook for economic growth is whether or not India's government can command the necessary will and political consent to carry through the reforms needed to sustain high growth. The critical reforms include a continued and sustained tightening of monetary policy by the Reserve Bank of India to keep inflation under control, a further reduction in fiscal deficits at the federal and state levels, and further deepening of capital markets and access to credit (Brookings Institute, 2007). Another...
In part because of the turbulent job market, people rarely stay in the same geographic location throughout their lives. Because most people do not live in stable communities where people might get to know one another, they are reduced to distinguishing themselves by signaling their status to others through displays of consumption.
Incentives have been effective in dramatically reducing the population growth rate in China. With the largest population of any country in the world and facing the prospect of mass starvation, in the 1970s China implemented an extensive, and intrusive, set of incentives to slow population growth. Parents who limit themselves to one child receive extra food, larger pensions, better housing, free medical care, and salary bonuses. The children will be given free school tuition and preferential treatment when he or she enters the job market. Between 1977 and 1996 the total fertility rate dropped from 5.7 to 1.8 children per woman.8
Consumer buying is generally seen as a positive thing from an economic point of view. When consumers buy goods and services, the production of those goods and services provides jobs and livelihoods to people and the economy is robust when consumers fail to buy, job opportunities decrease and the economy suffers. The greater the consumer demand, the healthier the economy will be or at least that is the prevailing assumption.
The population is dominated by the older generation as most of the young people tend to seek greater material rewards available in the big city. Hengsan is rich in limestone and lumber. The plants of Asia Cement Corporation and Taiwan Cement Corporation had played an important role in local development. During the martial law period (1949 1987), residents near the plants suffered mostly in silence from dust and air pollution. Considering the job opportunities offered by the corporations and their employees' livelihood, local residents did not oppose the operation of the plants. When martial law ended in 1987 and Taiwan transformed into a democratic form of government, the local residents started to air their complaints against the air pollution brought about by the corporations. Those who live near the plants complained that the roofs of their houses, crops, and plants were all covered by the dust from the cement plants. To remedy this, both corporations installed pollution-control...
The development company seems to think that they are qualified to address the common waste problem and the development scheme will be beneficial to the local community. The Weimon corporation handed out leaflets about the project and tried to communicate with local residents. First, it provided positive information about the company. For example, it claims that it has the ISO 9001 certificate and is recognized as an outstanding company. It also points out that the company has done a lot for the local community and county by paying huge amounts of tax, providing job opportunities, and funding activities held in the community. Second, the Weimon corporation assures the construction and operation meet the safety standard, and that the facility will NOT cause any negative impacts on drinking water and the living environment.
Interests are accepted as a motivating factor in many approaches to politics, and 'interests' is usually taken to refer to pecuniary stakes (profitability, market access, job opportunities, compliance, fiscal, and so on) - all legitimate and related to human well-being rather than of just immediate benefit to a company or corporate actor.
In both the ID and the ASD community, but especially in the latter group, there is a paucity of supports available to young adults as they move out of the educational system and there is a sparse literature about how best to tailor those supports. Due to the relatively limited implementation of targeted adaptive behavior interventions for individuals with ASD in childhood, the difficult transition to adulthood is perhaps not surprising. Wolf and Paterson note that the majority of adults with ASD are unable to obtain employment, develop relationships or live independently, and that adult independence is best predicted by the perceived availability of support. The nature of needed support services for adults, the mechanisms for providing them within existing communities and the training of service providers remain areas about which research has been largely silent. Finally, the support of adults with ID and ASD as they age represents an area of even greater and potentially more complex...
Americans are driving more than ever, leading to increased emissions of global warming pollutants. Americans need more transportation choices to reduce and eventually halt this growth in vehicle travel. Policies to provide these choices include encouraging the development of compact neighborhoods with a mix of land uses, where more tasks can be completed by foot, bike, or public transit expanding the reach and improving the quality of transit service and supporting programs to encourage carpooling, vanpooling, telecommuting, and other alternatives to single-vehicle travel.
We assume that these measures will affect primarily urban passenger transportation and result in a shift to higher-occupancy vehicles, including carpool-ing, vanpooling, public transportation, and telecommuting. We consider that these measures can achieve reductions in vehicle miles traveled of 8 percent by 2010 and 11 percent by 2020 relative to the Base Case in those years.
Reducing single-occupancy travel is a goal of most transportation plans. The strategies are generally a combination of carpooling, public transit, efforts to promote walking and biking, telecommuting, university transit, and parking policy. Increasingly, the process of matching riders with rides is Internet based, and a number of companies will offer that service at very low cost. At Tufts, we have also added a shared-vehicle program, described later in this chapter.
Several other policy alternatives are available at the state or local level, such as increased investments in public transportation and transportation demand management (TDM) tools, including high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, congestion charges, vehicle travel based fees, and telecommuting incentives. These options are not considered here, but they can be helpful in reducing the energy consumption of LDVs.
By reducing the pressure on mobility through alternatives (teleworking, teleshop-ping, telelearning) Teleworking leads to substitution of commuter traffic. The savings could rise to 40 per cent of the number of trips per week (ICT & Sustainability, 2000 Forseback, 2000, p34). The increased use due to the car becoming available generally seems to be less than the savings (Puylaert et al., 1999). In other words, the sum of the effect of a car being freed up for secondary purposes (social and recreational traffic), other work-related movements or instigation of new commuter traffic is less than the savings achieved. In combination with the assumption that the house is a more energy-efficient place to work than the office (ICT & Sustainability, 2000), large-scale introduction of teleworking could make a positive contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Besides teleworking, teleshopping can also save trips. Up to now the expectations for teleshopping have scarcely been converted into...
The home environment will become more important in the society of the future. Besides being a place to live, many activities in the house lend themselves to digitization and development of virtual services, ranging from television viewing and telephoning to electronic banking, telelearning, teleshopping and teleworking.1 The home is an ideal place for decoupling processes formerly linked in time and space. A person can bank electronically at any time of the day and no longer needs to visit the bank.2 The energy saving from teleactivities arises from the fact that the suppliers (for example, banks) need fewer people, fewer offices, fewer activities (in fact the work shifts to the consumer), that less transport and distribution of physical goods is needed (video-on-line means a reduction of transport between the 1 We return to teleworking in the section on transport. A second aspect is the degree to which ICT regulates overall energy consumption, starting with the provision of...
- Teleworking, teleshopping, etc. rebound effects for example, with teleworking the car is not used for work but for extra private trips a more efficient organization means that there is time left over for extra production, etc. We therefore expect that the extra 'room' created will be swallowed up by new activities, which leads to extra energy consumption
Lions of computers worldwide with a shelf-life of little more than three years. The rise of e-mail has up to now led to scarcely any reduction in the flow of paper. The arrival of Internet companies in Amsterdam has led to extra demand for electricity. A recent report (Huiberts, 2001) estimated the electricity use of the ICT sector in The Netherlands at more than 500 GWh, which is about 0.5 per cent of total Dutch electricity use. This electricity use is expected to grow to about 6700 GWh (about 6 per cent of total Dutch electricity use) in 2005 and to about 11,100 GWh (about 10 per cent of total Dutch electricity use) in 2009. The electricity use of the ICT sector is thus expected to grow enormously. However, there are also positive reports (Forseback, 2000). The Japanese Telecommunication Council forecasts a reduction of 3.81 MTon of CO2 by 2008 (or approximately 7 per cent of Japan's CO2 emissions) if teleworking, intelligent transport systems, paper reduction through the use of...
Next, in Chapter 3, I examine what corporate society does to the individual as producer, as worker. While we are formally free to choose our professions, few of us actually get the opportunity to find employment in fulfilling work. The odds are fairly high that a working-class person will find herself or himself with little choice but to take a mind-numbing job. Corporate employers attempt to push workers to the limit, while keeping them fearful of losing their jobs. Increasingly, even professional work, such as that of doctors, is losing the type of independent control that makes such occupations attractive.
Insofar as economists agree with commonsense moral intuitions and settled political convictions about the goals of an economy - enlarging the pie, increasing job opportunities, improving the lot of the poor, subsidizing education, health, and merit goods - they do not need to discuss the normative purpose of economic analysis because to do so would be to state the obvious and sound grand at the same time. 66 The economic goals of a society, such as employment, price stability, and productivity, are uncontroversial the task is to determine how to achieve them. This requires economists to debate facts, not measure values. Economists suggest how institutions can be reformed, property rights can be better defined, and incentive structures could change, so that new, better, and less expensive goods will appear. Economists can and should help find policies that grow the economy in the ways that Musgrave described while responding to environmental challenges such as climate change.
Local authorities can also influence company behaviour via public procurement contracts. The recent reform of the public contract Code stipulates in article 14 that the public contract conditions laid down in the specifications may include promoting the employment of people experiencing difficulties in finding work, fighting unemployment or protection of the environment . Authorities are applying this principle more and more regularly and hence they do have an influence on companies, especially the SME-SMIs which, in replying to offers to tender, are therefore obliged to include criteria related to their own social and environmental responsibility. Similarly, local authorities also demonstrate social and environmental responsibility by the example of their own actions when they make public purchases. France has adopted a national Plan of action for sustainable public purchasing, the aim being to make France one of the most committed countries in Europe in terms of social and...
Whether employed or seeking employment, adults with LD should be given strategies for maximizing performance in the workplace. For example, an adult with a Disorder of Written Expression might benefit from using dictation software for written work. An adult with a Reading Disorder might indicate a preference for meetings rather than written briefs. In some instances, it is appropriate to recommend vocational counseling, particularly if the individual is in a job that is a poor match for his or her strengths and weaknesses (e.g. an adult with dyslexia who works as a proofreader).
Among the most worrisome developments of recent years are the rampantly high birth rates of Muslim states that will in the long run and not so long run represent a population bomb potentially much more devastating than any car bomb, suicide bomber or even plane bomb such as used against the World Trade Center in September 2001. Many Third World Muslim states radicalize their youth instead of educating them in useful skills and establishing job opportunities for them. Saudi Arabia, together with Yemen, etc., maintains fertility rates of 6.3 to 7.3 per woman. Moslem countries in which government supports or at least tolerates radical organizations have a population of about 300 million and are among those with the highest birth or fertility rates.
All twenty companies support education initiatives and eighteen out of twenty companies support health initiatives aimed at local communities (in addition to education or health initiatives for their workers). However, there is a wide variation in the scope of initiatives and the level of integration. The initiatives range from occasional financial donations to schools or hospitals to the construction of new schools and other facilities. Some initiatives appear to have little integration with the company's activities and exhibit few signs of a 'social strategy' (e.g., a single donation to a medical facility), other initiatives exhibit a high level of integration with the company's operations (e.g., skills training that may help local people to find employment in the oil and gas industry). Among emerging market companies, South Africa's Sasol and Brazil's Petrobras appear to have much more sophisticated and integrated development programmes than, for instance, China's Sinopec or...
Before you can market yourself for employment, you must first evaluate yourself. Ask yourself what motivates you. What do you want to contribute Seek employment with this focus. Decide what areas you are most committed to. For example, do you want to work on Once you have evaluated your interests, skills, and career goals, you must research companies and areas of interest to you, meet people in your area of career interest, pursue interviews, and network to obtain employment. To test your career goals against the realities of the marketplace, you will need to do research. Know what people and which companies are taking the lead in areas of interest to you. Research individual companies to further define your job search and to prepare yourself to build a network. Understand the needs of companies you've targeted. Know what their strengths are and how they differ from their com Ask whether there is anyone else in the company with whom you might speak, or whether your interviewee can...
Saudi and other Gulf countries' economies would collapse if foreign experts and workers were to leave. This is not due to lack of local labor but the fact that Gulf Arabs are basically unwilling to do physical or even professional work, preferring to work for the government or survive on generous government handouts. In many countries they are furthermore shut out of the job market by better-qualified and cheaper expatriates. In Saudi Arabia some preacher teachers even issued fatwas approving the killing of Americans and other Westerners whose cultures are called lewd. They also call for the killing of Westernized Saudis, many of whom have received death threats. To 'protect' themselves many, including Prince Sultan, are giving huge sums to Islamic charities accused of links to Islamic terrorism. Some content that this is not a unique example but state policy.
In actual fact, entrepreneurs are hardly the great risk takers that either Knight, Wriston, or economic theory makes them out to be. In reality, more and more, the market has been rigged so that individuals, especially those with the least resources, find themselves forced to take on the most risk. For workers, years of education and experience can suddenly become worthless in the job market. Worse yet, workers face serious risks of workplace deaths and injuries.
Therefore, companies with a virtual worker program in place already have emergency workers ready to restart business. If the company routinely permits all workers to work from home at least several days per month, then, in a disaster, a larger portion of the company is ready to log in and return the company to at least a minimum level of service in a shorter period of time.
First, as a country industrializes and modernizes, cropland is used for industrial and residential developments. As automobile ownership spreads, the construction of roads, highways, and parking lots also takes valuable land away from agriculture. In situations where farmers find themselves with fragments of land that are too small to be economically cultivated, they often simply abandon their plots, seeking employment elsewhere.
Richard Rosan, president of the Urban Land Institute, recognized the city-terrorism problem early on. With this cloud of uncertainty hanging over America, there is a pressing need to make sure that the benefits of urban living continue to outweigh the disadvantages, he said a few weeks after the attacks. The desire of people to be together is evident by the way they flock to cities seeking employment, entertainment, and enlightenment. They want to work and live in places that are vibrant and safe, not just tolerable. Terrorism might be the last straw for some, Rosan argued, but the focus should remain on the basic building blocks for cities, like schools and infrastructure. In the long run people will leave if they are fed up with inadequate transit systems, inefficient planning, and a low quality of life.
Nearly fifteen years after those six visionary architects and their colleagues got together in California to talk about sprawl, New Urbanism is no longer a band of rebels but a mature and established institution. The movement's principles are embedded in both the planning profession and big swaths of the real estate development industry. Its members half-jokingly refer to it as a cult they call each other new urbanistas on email listserves and trade information on job opportunities in places where New Urbanism has been accepted. The movement is big enough now to have sprouted branches called Latino New Urbanism and the Congress for European Urbanism. They're on their fourteenth annual meeting or congress.
Clear that educating women and giving them job opportunities were associated with sharply declining birthrates. Female literacy in particular is negatively correlated with family size.11 Women's education and smaller families are both connected with successful modernization and development. Indeed, it is difficult to think of any nation that has successfully developed without educating its women and providing them with some measure of independence.
Of the transaction may be in the form of job opportunities, technology transfer, biodiversity and habitat protection, or improvement of local air and water quality. The host government is also concerned that the transaction is consistent with development goals, and that it does not foreclose future development opportunities.
Let's say you've got your telecommuters in place and business is moving along nicely. You can't rest on your laurels, however. You have to do some regular monitoring to make sure things are going as you planned. Review each telecommuting arrangement at least once a year to make sure the criteria originally established continue to be met. Conduct periodic site visits (at least once per year) to evaluate and ensure minimum safety requirements are being met. If there are problems, the telecommuter should correct them per your agreement. Get annual certificates of insurance coverage from each telecommuting employee.
Setting up a telecommuting program is reasonably straightforward, but there is some work to be done. It's ideal to have these steps in place before sending employees home with laptops. You should ensure that telecommuters receive the same training and information as office-based employees. Don't forget they're still part of your company. Telecommuters should also get the same consideration as their office-based peers for personnel transactions, such as promotions, transfers, and the like. Review Requests Some employees will want to telecommute others simply want to come to the office. In order to find out who wants to work from home, your human resources staff should consider developing telecommuting guidelines and involve any unions or other employee organizations. The telecommuting guidelines should include a three-step process Preapproval If an employee wants to telecommute, they fill out a worksheet that the organization can use to evaluate their suitability for telecommuting....
Long ago, virtual workers were called telecommuters. This was because they used dial-up telephone connections to communicate with the main office. The communications were slow and were designed to be very basic. Complex tasks were held until the workers came into the office and used a directly connected terminal.
An interesting article suggests the difficulty of coordinating a dual career family in a slippery job market. The authors looked at households where both parties were college professors. They found that these families disproportionately locate in large metropolitan areas where the opportunity for both people to find jobs is higher. The authors suggest that this tendency reveals the difficulty of finding suitable employment for both parties in more remote locations. The article also reported The proportion of working 'power-couple' wives in such traditional female occupations as schoolteacher, nurse, librarian, or social worker fell from 72 to 43 per cent between 1940 and 1990 (Costa and Kahn 2000 1291-2). One possible explanation for this decline would be that the wife in the family had difficulty finding suitable employment near the husband's job. Again, in the case of job instability, business imposes a cost on employees, while pocketing the profits that accrue from a flexible job...
As the nation grew, the gap between people and the natural environment was widening. The introduction of railroads, telegraphs, and stockyards, helped transform cities into major industrial centers. Populations within cities increased, as immigrants flocked to them seeking employment. The resulting noise, grit, and industrial waste compelled women in the cities to take action. In Chicago, social worker Jane Addams was prepared to do just that. Coupled with the efforts of Alice Hamilton and Mary McDowell, Hull House was formed in 1888.
Cities are therefore made up of large suburbs where people live in spacious park-like built-up areas. One-third more space is used for living than in 1990, although the population is only 10 per cent larger. Many people in the rapidly growing service sector work at home so that the space required for offices is the same as in 1990. Large industrial complexes take up around 30 per cent more space than in 1990. The Netherlands has several large airports due to the demand for air travel, which is 15 times higher than in 1990. There is a high degree of car ownership and the majority of freight transport is by road. The capacity of the road system is calculated to meet this demand. Broad motorways connect the city suburbs, industrial areas, ports and airports.