The Hydrological System

The Balkan peninsula

Roman Hydrology

The Mediterranean climate in the Balkan Peninsula is limited to the coastal area and the island region. On the Adriatic coast, the average winter temperature is moderate, except for the northern region where continental cold air is introduced by the Bora wind. In July, the average temperature is 23-25 C because of maritime influences. In the coastal area, precipitation is heavy. For instance, some places in Yugoslavia receive more than 4000 mm of rain annually. On the western mountain slopes...

Climate conditions during the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene

Holocene Climate Cycle Diagram

Van Zinderen Bakker 1976 proposed that, during the Last Glacial Period, cool and dry conditions prevailed in north and east South Africa, while cold temperatures, strong winds, and wet winters prevailed in the southern section. The same author maintains that, during the interglacial periods, pluvial conditions prevailed in the eastern part of South Africa in summer, while dry westerlies prevailed along the western and southwestern coasts. During winter, cyclonic storms penetrated the...

Climate during the Holocene

3.2.3.a PALYNOLOGICAL TIME SERIES The climate variability during the Holocene was investigated using palynological time series and archaeological and historical records. Sakaguchi (1982) described climatic variability during the last 7600 years based on a continuous section of peat samples taken from the wall of a pit in the raised bog of the Ozheghara moor, located near the head of the Tadami river, which flows into the Sea of Japan, 150 km north of Tokyo (site P73). The age was determined by...

The Neolithic period c ka to c ka BP

During the Neolithic period, human society achieved some remarkable progress in its struggle for survival. In the first place, certain societies in the Middle East adopted agriculture and domesticated animals as the dominant strategy in their struggle for survival. This agriculture, as will be discussed below, was based on irrigation. By using irrigation human society became less dependent on the natural environment, where productiveness is dependent on the randomness of climate changes,...

The Chalcolithic period c ka to c ka BP

The Neolithic period ended towards the end of the seventh millennium BP and was followed by a culture characterized by a new innovation, namely copper production. The Chalcolithic culture arrived in the Middle East at about 7 ka BP. The period between the Neolithic and Chalcolithic is demarcated by a gap in settlement that might have been caused by an extreme phase of the warmer and drier climate, which reached its maximum around 7 ka BP but might have extended later to influence the pattern of...

Climate changes during the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene

Pleistocene Map California

Davis (1995) has built a database of more than 1000 samples from over 50 sources. By applying the analogue technique, he reconstructed the paleo-climates of three sites the Montezuma Well in Arizona, Exchequer Meadows in California and Rattlesnake Cave in Idaho. Examining the Montezuma Well paleo-temperature curve, one can divide the Holocene sequence into three stages. 1. The early cold stage, 10 ka to 8 ka BP, in which the range of temperatures was below 12 C level (c. 10 C). 2. The...

Scandinavia and the northern Atlantic

Levant Hydrology

After the retreat of the glaciers of the last glacial period, which covered Scandinavia, a Baltic ice lake was formed c. 13 kaBP. It existed with some interruptions until c. 10.3 ka BP. It was replaced by the Yoldia Sea, which existed until 9.5kaBP. At c. 9.9kaBP, a saline ingression increased the salinity of the water of this sea. Then, from 9.5 ka to 8 ka BP, the area was covered by a vast freshwater lake Ancylus Lake , which was created by the retreat of the sea. Finally, from 8kaBP to the...

Climate during the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene

In north Africa, which still belongs to the westerlies belt, a humid period can be clearly recognized from about 5 ka to 3 kaBP, characterized by a period of geomorphological stability and pedogenesis, producing dark humic soils, quite different from the underlying reddish soils Rognon, 1987a,b . Alluviation of silts and fine sands occurred during this wet period in many valleys of north Africa. Swamps and little lakes developed in closed basins along the northern Sahara margins Rognon, 1987a,b...

Modified from data by Fang Jin Qix

The number of years The numter of year the nomads invaded severe drought was southward per 10 years reported per 10 years Temperature curvefor China Finods wlUl Little Ice Age warm-dry short cold-humid Fig. 3.2. Holocene climates in China. Changes over the last 2000 years modified from data by Fang Jin-Qix. 1990 . As the previous severe drought had occurred between 1876 and 1878, causing the death of about 13 million people in northern China, while the most recent was in the 1970s, Zhang...

The Iberian peninsula

Iberian Peninsula Map

Figure 2.3 shows the Iberian peninsula. The climate of the Iberian peninsula is decided by various factors. In the first place, its position on the southwestern flank of Europe, between 36 N and 44 N, causes it to be influenced periodically by the high sub-tropical and the high polar pressure zones. It lies between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea and is an extension of the Euro-Asian continent consequently, it forms a passageway for air masses, either of sub-tropical marine and...

Climate Changes During The Holocene In The Levant

The initial procedure adopted by the author to establish the sequence of climate changes during the Holocene was based on a chrono-stratigraphical cross section derived mainly from the sequence of ratios of 18O 16O, with the ratios of 13C 12C as auxiliary data Fig. 1.2 . These isotopic data came from a core from the bottom of Lake Van in Turkey Lemcke and Sturm, 1997 , from a core at the bottom of the Sea of Galilee Stiller et al., 1983 84 , from speleothemes of caves in upper Galilee Issar...

Climatic Changes during the Upper Pleistocene and the Holocene

In general, rather arid conditions prevailed over all equatorial regions during the Last Glacial Maximum and landforms were characterized by reduced stream activity. These conditions lasted until c. 13 ka BP, afterwards large paleo-floods occurred until 11 ka BP. From this period to c. 9.5 ka BP, dry conditions returned. From 9.5kaBP, the re-establishment of the lowland rainforests started, followed by several wet dry oscillations (Thomas and Thorp, 1995). Paleo-climatic records adjacent to...

The Italian peninsula and the French Mediterranean coast

In general, the climatic regime of the Italian peninsula and French Mediterranean coast is similarly influenced by the westerlies cyclonic system to the north, which dominates the region during winter, and the Sahara anticyclonic zone, which dominates the region during summer months. Thus, this region is characterized by mild, relatively humid winters and hot and dry summers. Sicily and the southern Italian peninsula are areas typical of such a climate. Because of the Apennine mountains, the...

The Climate During The Late Pleistocene

In general, the climates during glacial periods of the Quaternary, evidenced in the Mediterranean region by sea regressions, were cold, while interglacial and post-glacial periods, evidenced by transgressions, were warm and dry Horowitz, 1989 . In the coastal plains this resulted in the accumulation of black and brown clayey soils in the marshy areas and red loamy soils on the sandstone outcrops. In the mountain areas on the limestone rocks, terra rosa type soils developed. During the...

The Late Bronze Age and Iron Age ka to ka BP

The different proxy-data time series for this period provide rather inconstant evidence with regard to the climate. While the period started with a decline in the Mediterranean Sea level and a rise in the number of planktonic foraminifers, parallel to a rise in the level of the Dead Sea, it continued with a reverse trend, which is inconsistent with most of the environmental and isotope composition data of the lakes and caves deposits. It is, therefore, suggested that this was a period...

The Roman Byzantine period ka to ka BP including the Roman Byzantine transition period ka to ka BP

From about 2.3 ka BP to about 1.3 ka BP, there is quite a good correlation between the different proxy-data time series in the Levant. It started with a phase of cooling and humidity which continued up to c. 1.7 ka BP, during which time the level of the Dead Sea rose to more than 30 m above the present level, there was a profusion in planktonic foraminifers in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and a lighter composition ratio of environmental isotopes were laid down in cave and lake deposits....

Climate changes during the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene transition period

Paloe Hyrdological Maps

During the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene, the climate in eastern Asia, especially in China, was different from one region to another, according to the climatic belt to which each region belonged. While the most northwestern region belonged to the westerlies belt, the rest of China was influenced by the monsoon regime. Thus, while the first region was cold and humid during the last glacial period and became warmer and drier as the glaciers melted, most other regions, especially...

Climate changes during the Holocene

Metcalfe 1997 has studied the sediments of the lakes in the Zacapu Basin of central Mexico west to the Basin of Mexico City. No sediments were found for the period of transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene. During the Holocene, only minor changes occurred in the levels of the lakes, except at c. 5.0 ka and 1.1 kaBP, when the lakes dried up. Lozano-Garcia and Xelhuantzi-Lopez 1997 have studied the pollen, diatoms, macrofossil plant remains and tephras from cores in the sediments of this...

The Moslem Ottoman period ka to ka BP

Through better resolution of the time series of Soreq Cave, it can be seen that around 0.4 ka BP there was again a short but severely warm and dry period, lasting about a century, which reduced precipitation to an annual average of 450 mm. Thereafter, the climate became cooler and more humid, exceeding the current average rainfall. Liphschitz and Waisel (1974) explained the disappearance of date palms from the region of Jericho and Ein Gedi from the fifteenth century AD as a result of human...

The Moslem Arab period c ka to ka BP

The deterioration of the climate all over the Middle East sometime around 13 ka BP can be deducted from most of the proxydata time series, especially from the environmental isotope composition of the deposits of the Sea of Galilee, the caves of Galilee and Soreq Cave. Bar-Matthews et al. 1998a,b calculated, based on the isotopic composition of the stalagmites in Soreq Cave, that the average annual precipitation over the Judean mountains had begun to decrease some time after 1.4 ka BP after...

Contemporary climate and hydrological regime of the Nile

From the climatological point of view, Egypt is the northeastern edge of the Sahara belt (Fig. 4.1) and its extreme aridity is caused by the descent of tropical air masses, which causes them to become hot and dry. Along the Mediterranean coast, a narrow strip of its land is influenced during winter by the cyclonic system of the westerlies. The annual average precipitation over most of Egypt is less than 50 mm and only along the coast does it reach about 100 mm. Yet Egypt, since ancient times,...

The British Isles

According to Roberts (1989), the British Isles remained largely treeless until the start of the Holocene. Later on, once the climatic conditions permitted, the dominant vegetation was mixed deciduous forest. During the Lower Holocene, the Neolithic, the climate was rather warm, enabling the expansion of the hazel population. During the Chalcolithic and EB, there was a reduction in this population, most probably because of a colder phase. During the MB and Late Bronze Age hazel increased in...