Floods The Hydroclimatic Extreme Of Excessive Moisture

Preface page ix

1 The realm of hydroclimatology 1

1.1 Water as a unifying concept 1

1.2 The global hydrologic cycle 5

1.3 Hydroclimatology defined 6

1.4 Emergence of the hydrologic cycle 8

1.5 Two climates for two hydrologic cycles 14

1.6 Hydroclimatic data 21

1.7 Data quality 21 Review questions 23

2 The climate system and the hydrologic cycle 24

2.1 Climate and water 24

2.2 Scale considerations 25

2.3 Dynamic climate 26

2.4 The climate system 27

2.5 The atmospheric subsystem 30

2.6 Feedbacks 31

2.7 The hydrologic cycle 32

2.8 The radiation balance 34

2.9 Selective atmospheric response to solar radiation 39

2.10 Terrestrial radiation and the greenhouse effect 43

2.11 Global radiation balance 45

2.12 Surface radiation balance 47

2.13 Planetary energy balance 48

2.14 The water balance 49 Review questions 54

3 Measuring hydroclimate atmospheric components 55

3.1 An atmospheric focus 55

3.2 Surface data 56

3.3 Radiation 57

3.4 Temperature 61

3.5 Atmospheric pressure 63

3.6 Humidity 66

3.7 Radiosonde upper-air measurements 68 Review questions 73

4 Measuring hydroclimate terrestrial components 74

4.1 A terrestrial focus 74

4.2 Terrestrial hydroclimatic data 75

4.3 Precipitation formation 76

4.4 Rainfall 78

4.5 Snowfall 80

4.6 Wind 86

4.7 Soil moisture 88

4.8 Evaporation and evapotranspiration 102

4.9 Streamflow 117

4.10 Estimating areal hydroclimatic data 122 Review questions 125

5 Remote sensing and hydroclimate data 126

5.1 Remote sensing data 126

5.2 Satellites 128

5.3 Radiation data from satellites 140

5.4 Remotely sensed temperature 142

5.5 Derived pressure from satellite data 144

5.6 Atmospheric humidity from satellites 145

5.7 Rainfall remote sensing 146

5.8 Snow remote sensing 153

5.9 Surface wind remote sensing 159

5.10 Soil moisture remote sensing 160

5.11 Evapotranspiration remote sensing 162

5.12 Runoff remote sensing 164 Review questions 164

6 The runoff process and streamflow 165

6.1 Transforming precipitation into runoff 165

6.2 Factors affecting runoff 165

6.3 Precipitation input 168

6.4 Interception 169

6.5 Infiltration 172

6.6 Overland flow 174

6.7 Throughflow or interflow 174

6.8 Groundwater 176

6.9 The hydrograph 177

6.10 Rainfall runoff 181

6.11 Snow and runoff 190

6.12 Lakes as surface storage 200

6.13 Wetlands and runoff 203

6.14 Reservoirs and streamflow 204

6.15 Watershed models 207 Review questions 210

7 Hydroclimate spatial variations 212

7.1 Spatial scale 212

7.2 Global atmospheric hydroclimate 213

7.3 The radiation balance 214

7.4 Temperature 218

7.5 Atmospheric humidity 219

7.6 Atmospheric pressure 224

7.7 Atmospheric circulation 230

7.8 Global terrestrial hydroclimate 235

7.9 Precipitation 235

7.10 Evapotranspiration 242

7.11 Soil moisture 243

7.12 Runoff 244

7.13 Regional hydroclimate 248

7.14 Local hydroclimate 256 Review questions 260

8 Hydroclimate temporal variations 262

8.1 Temporal scale 262

8.2 Earth's climate in perspective 264

8.3 Tree-ring reconstructions 269

8.4 Ocean-atmosphere influences on hydroclimate 272

8.5 Madden-Julian Oscillation 273

8.6 El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation 275

8.7 North Atlantic Oscillation 282

8.8 Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern 284

8.9 Pacific Decadal Oscillation 286

8.10 Recent temperature trends 289

8.11 Recent precipitation trends 293

8.12 Recent streamflow trends 296

8.13 Recent lake level trends 300 Review questions 304

9 Floods: the hydroclimatic extreme of excessive moisture 305

9.1 Hydroclimatic extreme events 305

9.2 Flood hydroclimatology 307

9.3 Flash floods 310

9.4 Mediterranean Europe flash floods 311

9.5 United States flash floods 315

9.6 General floods 325

9.7 The 2002 central Europe flood 326

9.8 The 1993 Midwestern United States flood 331 Review questions 343

10 Drought: the hydroclimatic extreme of deficient moisture 344

10.1 Negative moisture anomalies 344

10.2 Drought hydroclimatology 346

10.3 Drought indices 347

10.4 Proxy evidence of drought 352

10.5 Drought causes 354

10.6 West Africa Sahel drought 356

10.7 Western United States drought 361

10.8 Midwestern United States 1988 drought 364

10.9 Summer 2003 European drought 368

10.10 Drought and wildfires 373

10.11 Looking ahead 379 Review questions 382

References 383 Index 418

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