Terrestrial radiation and the greenhouse effect

About one-half of the solar radiation reaching the upper edge of the Earth's atmosphere is ultimately absorbed by the Earth's surface see Fig. 2.3 . The longwave infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface has an important role in the climate system because it provides the largest quantitative energy input to the atmosphere. Atmospheric gases that are transparent to shortwave solar radiation are largely opaque to longwave terrestrial radiation that occurs at wavelengths greater than 4.0...

Hydroclimatology defined

The American hydrologist Walter Langbein 1967 defined hydroclimatology as the study of the influence of climate upon the waters of the land. He identified precipitation and evapotranspiration and the imbalance of these climatic elements as the focus of hydroclimate. However, subsequent advances in understanding natural processes complemented by development of contemporary measurement techniques, data acquisition, and analytical tools suggest this perspective is too restrictive for modern...