Hepatitis Ebook

Alternative Hepatitis C Treatments

The therapeutic goals of Natural treatment for Hepatitis C are as follows: Decrease iral load Normalize liver enzyme levels. Enhance/regulate immune system function. Strengthen and promote healthy liver function. Protect the liver, prevent further damage. Virological response; i.e. viral clearance, viral reduction or elimination of the virus. Starve the virus by limiting levels of iron. Optimizing cellular levels of glutathione in the body, making detoxification of the liver possible and enhancing the immune system. Stimulate regeneration of the damaged liver cells. Use of antioxidants to combat the effects of free-radicals generated by the virus. Reduce inflammation. Slow viral replication. Replace all of the inflammation-damaged liver cells. Regulate immune function/prevent auto-immune problems. Cancer preventative measures. Reverse fibrosis to prevent and improve cirrhosis

Alternative Hepatitis C Treatments Summary


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Hepatitis A HAV

Organism Infectious hepatitis is a viral infection caused by a member of the Picorna-viridae, which includes both enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. Clinical features The main pathology is inflammation, infiltration and necrosis of the liver, resulting in biliary stasis and jaundice. The infection generally starts insidiously, the person feels lethargic, anorexic and depressed. Fever, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort ensue before the appearance of jaundice reveals the diagnosis. Once jaundice appears, the person generally starts to feel better. Hepatitis A is a mild disease leading to spontaneous cure in the large majority, with only a few cases developing acute fulminant hepatitis and even rarely severe chronic liver damage. There is an increase in symptomatic and severe cases with increasing age. Hepatitis is mainly a disease of poor sanitation, with water and food as the principal vehicles of transmission, but can also occur when sanitation is good. Salads, cold meats and...

Hepatitis Delta HDV

Organism Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is dependent on HBV infection of the person. Either both viruses can infect at the same time or HDV infects an already infected HBV carrier. normally a self-limiting infection with only about 5 continuing into the chronic form of HDV. However, with superinfection (HDV infection of an already HBV-infected person), there is a severe acute hepatitis with 80 continuing to chronic active hepatitis, often progressing to cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma due to HDV occurs with about the same frequency as with HBV. The mortality due to HDV is between 2 and 20 making it some ten times greater than for HBV alone. Treatment and surveillance See hepatitis B above.

Hepatitis E HEV

Clinical features Hepatitis E is very similar to hepatitis A except that it nearly always occurs in large epidemics. The main difference is that hepatitis E results in a high mortality in pregnant women (up to 20 ). Transmission Similar to hepatitis A, although the main means of transmission is via water. A reservoir has been found in wild and domestic pigs, suggesting a zoono-tic pattern of transmission. Diagnosis is by the detection of IgM and IgG anti-hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) in serum. Occurrence and distribution Hepatitis E has been responsible for large epidemics in South and Southeast Asia, especially Myanmar and Vietnam, where it appears to be endemic. Epidemics have also occurred in North Africa, Ethiopia, China and Mexico. Control and prevention The same as hepatitis A, but extra precautions should be taken to protect pregnant women. There is no specific vaccine.

Hepatitis C HCV

Clinical features Similar in many respects to hepatitis B, HCV produces a milder disease, but as many as 10-20 will progress to cirrhosis and 1 to liver cancer in later life. Diagnosis is difficult, dependent upon detecting antibodies to HCV and confirming by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). PCR is now commonly used. Control and prevention There is no vaccine for HCV, so all precautions need to be taken to prevent further spread by rigorous adherence to sterilization of needles and instruments. Treatment and surveillance See hepatitis B above.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver, comes in three forms A, B, and C. A is on our B list as it is unique among the picornaviruses (single-stranded RNA viruses) to be foodborne. Forms B and C are transmitted by illegal drug use and unsafe sexual practices, and are not on our B list. Hepatitis A is the most common form of hepatitis, with some 25,000 cases reported annually the actual incidence is believed to be 10 times higher because of underreporting. It is a highly infections virus, requiring only 10-100 virions to initiate a frank illness with a touch of jaundice. Most US cases are seen in the western and southwestern states. Children age 5-14 have the highest incidence. Day-care centers contribute some 8 of cases and household contacts, another 14 . The prime source of infection appears to be contamination of fresh produce during harvesting, processing, and packaging. Hepatitis is a classic example of the fecal-oral route of microbial transmission, which means that a person...

Hepatitis B HBV

Clinical features In many parts of the developing world, HBV infection is common, but only about 30 show any symptoms. However, these symptomatic cases present as a more severe disease than hepatitis A, with a persistent jaundice, often resulting in liver damage. After an insidious onset with anorexia, nausea and abdominal discomfort, jaundice then develops, from which the patient either recovers or goes on to develop chronic active disease. Low-grade infection continues with periods of jaundice alternating with remissions, but invariably cirrhosis develops. The disease is more serious in those over 40 years of age, in pregnant women and newborn infants. Hepatocellu-lar carcinoma is associated with chronic hepatitis B infection. Certain people are more infectious than others resulting in a carrier state, with the period of communicability being considerable. The risk of an infant becoming infected from a carrier mother can be 50-70 in some ethnic...

Other Infections Transmitted by Food

Method of transmission is by other means. Any of the faecal-oral diseases covered in Chapter 8 can be transmitted this way - ba-cillary dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis A, Giar-dia and El Tor type cholera being spread by eating salad vegetables, raw fish or other food. The parasitic worms transmitted by soil contact, Trichuris, Ascaris, Strongy-loides and the hookworms (Chapter 10) can

Torosyan and S Harutyunyan

This paper presents results of research on the use of natural materials such as zeolites (mordenite and clinoptilolite) as sorbents and as promising materials for protecting flood-prone areas after a flood. Floods transfer large amounts of inorganic and organic water pollutants, creating huge ecological problems in the lower river regions, where human settlements and agriculture are vulnerable to floods. Floods carry bacteria, viruses and parasites, as well as chemicals, along with organic substances that are especially dangerous, e.g., chlorine-containing compounds such as pesticides, solvents, and petroleum-based products. Diseases such as dysentery, hepatitis and giardiasis can be transferred through water sources used by the population that have been contaminated by floodwaters. The paper offers a method of sorption treatment, using natural Armenian zeolites. The advantages of natural zeolites in comparison with other sorbents, include their stability, low cost,...

AE Gurzau C Borzan IR Lupsa LO Sfetcu AL Ivan and S Gurzau

The present paper deals with the drinking water security problems in large rural areas of Romania during the 2005 floods in the Timis, Bega and Mures River basins. It evaluates the intervention of public health authorities to prevent a major health risk from an epidemic or endemic waterborne diseases, as well as the health promoting education in this regard. From the medical perspective, the interventions in flood affected region showed once again that the main public health priority was to provide a basic secure water supply to the affected population. Along with the water supply, the prophylactic immunisation for waterborne diseases, like hepatitis A, resulted in crisis management without significantly affecting the health status of the population. Analysis of the events in recent years has shown the persistence of the communities' vulnerability in emergency situations, even though the capacity of the specialized institutions for action has increased.

Prevalence of Injecting Drug

Utilitarian purpose within the drug-using community, they have also served as vectors for hepatitis and other blood-borne infections. The injecting devices are often shared by dozens of drug users who do not have any social relationship with one another and, therefore, do not know one another's HIV status or about any risky behavior that they may engage in. The materials are frequently used repeatedly until the needle or syringe becomes bent or too dull or clogged with dried blood and is discarded. With the advent of AIDS, such paraphernalia and places have taken on a deadly aspect.

Climate Change Effects

Floodwater entering buildings is going to be either clean or dirty. Clean water can come from sources such as burst plumbing, falling rain, hail, snow or ice. A cold snap may result in plumbing supply lines freezing. The movement of expansive soils can also cause plumbing to burst. These, along with falling rain, hail and snow, are examples of clean water entering a building. Once water has flowed across soil, it is no longer considered clean. When organic material is present it facilitates the presence of dozens of dangerous microorganisms like E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella as well as parasites and viruses like those that cause hepatitis. Sewage systems frequently overflow, mixing pathogenic organisms with floodwater, creating perfect conditions for the development and spread of disease outbreaks.

Treatment and Mass Drug Administration

Treatment of the sick is not only a humanitarian action, but reduces the length of illness and, therefore, the period of commu-nicability, thereby aiding control. However, where treatment is incomplete, it can actually prolong the period of communicability, encourage the development of carriers or worst of all, resistant organisms. Case finding and treatment is the main method of control for leprosy (Section 12.6) and tuberculosis (Section 13.1), but careful follow-up is essential to ensure that treatment is taken for the whole period. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is particularly important in acute respiratory infections (Section 13.2) and meningitis (Sections 13.6 and 13.7). The development of effective single dose therapy for the treatment of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs, Chapter 14) has been one of the great challenges of chemotherapy, but the 'power of the needle' has also been the means of transmission of several communicable diseases. In many societies, having an...

Serological and virological surveillance

Where laboratory facilities permit, a record of certain diseases can be obtained from serological or virological studies. An example is the use of anonymous testing of blood samples collected at antenatal clinics for HIV and hepatitis B infections. Care must be taken to ensure that the data are representative of the population and are measured continuously.

Effects of raw or undertreated sewage dumping

Sewage-borne infections such as typhoid, viral hepatitis, enteric infections and ear, nose and throat infections have been associated with exposure to sewage-polluted seawater. Infection may be transmitted to humans directly through contact with water or spray, or indirectly by consumption of marine foods. In the UK there have

Classification of Communicable Diseases

Diseases are normally classified by the causative organism, which has much to recommend it for the clinician and the pathologist, but different organisms can cause similar diseases, such as Escherichia coli, a bacteria and Giardia intestinalis, a protozoa, both producing diarrhoea in the individual. Control methods are similar as a result, an epidemiologist will find it preferable to include them in the same group. On the other hand, the closely linked group of viruses that cause hepatitis are very different in their means of transmission -hepatitis A is transmitted by the faecal-oral route and hepatitis B by blood and other body fluids, so it is preferable to separate these two diseases into different categories. Transmission is the key to the epidemiology of communicable diseases. Once the means of transmission is known, it leads to the best method of control, so it is preferable to use this as the method of classification. Based on these criteria, all communicable that present in...

Future Threats And Impacts

Lack of clean water and sanitation services increases the risk of infectious diseases such as diarrhea, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, typhoid fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. Wastewater could mix with water supplies, allowing bacteria, viruses, and parasites to leak into drinking and cooking water and food. A severe outbreak of a deadly strain of E. coli in Walkerton, Ontario, in spring 2000, causing several deaths and thousands of disease cases, was triggered by an extended period of dry weather followed by heavy rains washing cattle fecal matter into well water (Chiotti et al., 2002).

Vaccine schedules

Hepatitis B leads to chronic liver disease, especially cirrhosis, which is a predisposing cause of primary liver cell cancer. The prevalence of hepatitis B is as high as 8 in many parts of the world, but if the vaccine is administered before infection, the disease and carrier state are prevented. WHO recommends that hepatitis B vaccine be included in the routine childhood vaccination schedule. It is most conveniently administered in three doses at the same time as DTP, but in countries with a high carrier state, an additional dose at birth is recommended. This will probably only be necessary for a comparatively short period of time because once hepatitis B vaccine becomes widely used, the carrier state will rapidly decline. In developed countries where the incidence is much lower, the vaccine is given in adolescence or to those at risk, but will probably be incorporated into the routine vaccination programme at some stage. and hepatitis B vaccine in areas of high prevalence DTP plus...

Epidemic Theory

Period of communicability, the period during which an individual is infectious. The infectious period can start before the disease process commences (e.g. hepatitis) or after (e.g. sleeping sickness). In some diseases, such as diphtheria and streptococcal infections, infectiousness starts from the date of first exposure.

Lassa Fever

Lassa fever arrived in New Jersey in August 2004. The virus was carried by a businessman who had spent 4 months in Sierra Leone and Liberia before suffering fever, chills, sore throat, diarrhea, and backache. Two days later he left Sierra Leone, traveling by plane to London, then on to Newark, and by train home, where he was hospitalized in Trenton, NJ. After 4 days of unsuccessful diagnosis and treatment, Lassa fever was diagnosed. Before ribavirin, an experimental drug, could be used, the patient died. Postmortem specimens sent to the CDC confirmed the diagnosis. With Lassa fever confirmed, bells went off and the CDC opened an investigation of those individuals possibly exposed to direct contact with the patient's body fluids. Contacts were categorized as of low or high risk. During the period of the patient ' s infectivity, some 188 people could have been exposed. Five were classified as high-risk 183 as low. The five were his wife, three children, and brother, who visited him in...

Cancer Disparities

The prevalence of underlying risk factors for some cancers differs among racial and ethnic groups. The higher rates of stomach cancer among Hispanics (Latinos) and Asian Americans reflects in part the higher rates of Helicobacter pylori infections in recent immigrants. Similarly, higher rates of liver cancer are found among Hispanics and Asian Americans, who have a higher prevalence of chronic hepatitis infections 55 .