Figures

1.1 Vostok ice core data 12

1.2 Four glacial periods of the Pleistocene 13

1.3 Extent and height of the North American ice sheets in the most recent ice age 17

1.4 Build-up and decline of the Laurentide Ice Sheet 17

1.5 Extent and ice thickness of recent ice age at the peak color

1.6 Variation of the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit over the past 100,000 years 19

1.7 Variation of the obliquity of the Earth's orbit over the past 100,000 years . . 19

1.8 Variation of the longitude of perihelion of the Earth's orbit over the past 100,000 years 20

1.9 Variation of the yearly solar irradiance at various latitudes in the NH over the past 100,000 years 20

1.10 Variation of Earth orbit parameters over the past 250,000 years and into the future 100,000 years 21

1.11 Comparison of past temperatures (from ice cores) with estimated solar irradiance in mid-summer (June 21) at 65°N 22

1.12 Comparison of rate of change of ice volume with solar irradiance color

1.13 A concept of post-glaciation temperatures 33

1.14 Historical expansion and contraction of Bjarnbreen glacier 33

1.15 Holocene climatic variations in southern Norway 34

1.16 Holocene temperatures in six regions of Europe 35

1.17 Holocene annual temperatures in six regions of Europe 36

1.18 Holocene annual temperatures for Europe as a whole 37

1.19 Result of borehole interpretations of past surface temperature 37

1.20 Average sea surface temperature during the Holocene 38

2.1 Deforested area for ten latitude bands 47

2.2 Estimate of deforestation 47

2.3 Cumulative area of land cleared by latitude and year 48

2.4 Modeled NH temperatures based on all forcings, or only deforestation 48

2.5 Fifteen individual proxies 51

2.6 Derived NH temperature anomalies 51

2.7 Comparison of temperature reconstructions 53

2.8 Plot of individual proxies 54

2.9a Rendition of individual proxies color

2.9b Simple average of proxy data 55

2.10 Variations in the size of the Grosser Aletsch Glacier over the last 3,000 years 57

2.11 Tree ring density reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures 59

2.12 Sea surface temperatures in the Sargasso Sea 60

2.13 Calibration period for south China 61

2.14 Longer term data for south China 62

2.15 Estimated temperature profiles for all China 63

2.16 2,000-year temperature histories for Chinese and vicinity areas 64

2.17 Comparison of several temperature reconstructions for China 65

2.18 Comparison of several temperature reconstructions for China and the Northern Hemisphere 65

2.19a 400-year proxy climate records for Arctic Europe to western Canada color

2.19b 400-year proxy climate records for Canada to Greenland color

2.20 Data from 826 boreholes 66

2.21 Iceland temperatures 69

2.22 The original hockey stick 72

2.23 Temperature anomaly vs. year since 1000 72

2.24 Temperature reconstructions 73

2.25 Northern Hemisphere surface temperature anomalies color

2.26 Comparison of temperature reconstructions color

2.27 Reconstruction of historical temperatures color

2.28 Two tree ring chronologies from the MBH data set 78

2.29 Comparison of temperature reconstructions 79

2.30 Temperature reconstructions 80

2.31 Comparison of MBH centering vs. using centering across the whole time span of the data set 82

2.32 Comparison of temperature histories from the IPCC Report with original data archive 91

2.33 McIntyre's average of 369 proxies 92

2.34 Temperature history of the last millennium color

3.1 Comparison of annual average temperatures in rural New York State with New

York City color

3.2 Adjustment of raw temperature data at Tokyo, Japan for urban heating ... 103

3.3 Temperatures at LaGuardia Airport (New York City) 107

3.4 U.S. mean temperature anomalies 110

3.5 Global mean temperature anomalies based on a combination of land and ocean data 111

3.6 Global mean temperature anomalies based only on land-based meteorological stations 111

3.7 Global mean temperature anomalies for the two hemispheres color

3.8 Global mean temperature anomalies on a monthly basis from 1997 to 2006 . 113

3.9 Global temperature anomalies for three latitude ranges 114

3.10 Mean temperature as a function of latitude and time period 115

3.11 Measured temperature at one Antarctic site 116

3.12 Stations in Antarctica 117

3.13 Estimate of sulfur emissions 1850-2000 124

3.14 Estimate of sulfur emissions 1850-2000 color

3.15a Distribution of mean temperature stations 127

3.15b Distribution of maximum/minimum temperature stations 128

3.16 World temperature measurement stations 128

3.17 Smoothed monthly temperatures for the two hemispheres 131

3.18 Global smoothed monthly temperatures 133

3.19 Trends in global MSU Channel 2 brightness temperatures 136

3.20 Tropospheric temperature over two decades 137

3.21 Trends in maximum temperatures, minimum temperatures, and diurnal temperature range 139

3.22 Temperature anomalies based on 50 European sites from 1751 to 1995 141

4.1 Results of the series of redundant, overlapping satellite TSI monitoring experiments color

4.2 Composite of TSI measurements 144

4.3 Comparison of calculated TSI with measured values 146

4.4 Sunspots color

4.5 Sunspot groups color

4.6 Sunspots and faculae color

4.7 Group sunspot numbers since ~1600 150

4.8 Group sunspot numbers from 1728 to 1799 150

4.9 Group sunspot numbers 1610-1660 151

4.10 Comparison of group sunspot numbers with Zurich sunspot numbers 152

4.11 25-year average of group sunspot numbers and Zurich sunspot numbers ... 152

4.12 Sunspot number reconstructed from 10Be concentrations in ice cores color

4.13 Modeled TSI through the Maunder Minimum to the present 164

4.14 Relationship between TSI and sunspot number at periodic maxima 165

4.15 Relationship between TSI and sunspot number at periodic minima 165

4.16 Reconstructed TSI since 1880 168

4.17 Reconstructed TSI based on sunspot number or cycle duration 169

4.18a Estimates of A(gS) (W/m2) based on sunspot number or cycle duration . . . 169

4.18b Reconstruction of TSI using two models for the "quiet Sun contribution''. . 170

4.19 Reid's 15-year moving average of group sunspot variations 171

4.20 Dependence of long-term TSI on 15-year filtered sunspot number 172

4.21 Modification of Reid's estimate of variation of TSI over four centuries using updated TSI 172

4.22 TSI data are plotted for ACRIM1 from 1978 to 1989 vs. Ca ii H and K indices 178

4.23 Estimated TSI for the 20th century 180

4.24 Global annual mean surface temperature anomalies for the 20th century ... 180

4.25 Difference in modeled TSI and temperature variations since 1600 between a CQSM model and a model that assumes that TSI was 0.24% lower during the

0 0

Post a comment