The Secret to Happiness

The Lasting Happiness And Success Formula

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The Lasting Happiness And Success Formula Summary

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Author: Dr. Joe Rubino
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Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Markets And Happiness

What might explain the seeming decline in happiness in the United States Could markets themselves be responsible Robert Lane suggests that markets may actually be antithetical to happiness (Lane 2000). He argues that markets put a premium on consumption, while tending to undermine those aspects of life that actually are essential to happiness warm interpersonal relations, easy-to-reach neighbors, satisfying work, and a healthy family life. We saw some evidence about the way that markets can undermine happiness in the earlier discussion of the inordinate time demands that work makes on people. Supposedly, a healthy economy requires a flexible workforce in which labor markets can shunt workers hither and yon at a moment's notice. The resulting job insecurity and unemployment associated with a flexible labor market are surely very destructive of happiness. The stress associated with this insecurity surely takes a serious toll on the economy, both in terms of increased health costs and...

Prosperity And Happiness

I want to take a moment to consider what light economic theory might throw on the relationship between prosperity and happiness. Economists who believe in the harmonious functioning of the market construct beautiful theories to show how the economy works to maximize happiness and human welfare. Well, not quite. Because of the technical difficulties that economists encountered in elaborating this theory, they had to satisfy themselves merely by proving that a market will eliminate a very limited sort of inefficiency that the market will never reach an outcome in which you could somehow give someone something without making someone else worse off. Even this modest proof requires a large number of assumptions that are never met in the real world. In this theoretical context, within a market society, all individuals will attempt to maximize their happiness economists use the term utility given the limitations of their budgets. Firms will then adapt their business to accommodate...

Health And Happiness In The Home

There can be a global dimension to the impacts of health issues, as well as being about the safety, health and happiness of the people who live in the house. Because the subject is so large we have simply listed alphabetically a number of the most important issues that may concern householders. Some of the issues are touched on in other chapters. Once homeowners are aware that there may be problems in one particular area of their house design many different local and national organizations can be contacted for more information on each area. Local government offices and building research establishments are often good places to start. Many issues will be covered by the local building regulations and can be discussed with the relevant authorities. The Internet is also a great place to search for detailed information on individual hazards and issues. All information from the Web should be thought through to ensure it is backed up by the common-sense intuitions of designers and that it is...

Their Program And Ours

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

The Growth Imperative

Anti-globalization activists, environmentalists, and others on the ideological left who criticize the consumer mania of rich countries often forget that economic growth is vitally important for a large majority of the world's population. For the roughly 5 billion people living in countries with an annual per capita GDP of less than 13,000, economic growth definitely boosts happiness. For the 2.7 billion people living on less than 2 a day, growth is needed to satisfy the most basic requirements of human dignity. And for the poorest billion people, growth can mean the difference between life and death.

Example Bhutan Embraces the Contribution of the Environment to National Development

The UNDP-UNEP PEI has supported efforts to mainstream poverty-environment linkages into both national planning and sectors critical to Bhutan's economy. To achieve this, the PEI team engaged with key government officials to create awareness of these linkages and their relationship to economic development. The government prepared guidelines and conducted workshops as part of this effort. Complementing these activities, the Australian government implemented a capacity-building programme to train a team of officers from selected government agencies on mainstreaming concepts. A significant result is that Bhutan's Gross National Happiness Commission (the national body in charge of planning and development at the highest level) is now a strong proponent of mainstreaming and has embraced the task of integrating poverty-environment considerations into all sector development plans. A senior officer noted, It has been unfortunate that environment has been seen as a sector issue in Bhutan so...

Consumption and Agriculture

The most important activity of humanity is growing and distributing its food, and that certainly is the enterprise most critical to human health and happiness. In our heavily urbanized society, most of us are far removed from the systems that supply our food, and we tend to take them all for granted. But many of the processes involved in providing the variety of foods now demanded by consumers in developed countries carry high environmental costs. They include all the energy costs of growing, harvesting, storing, and processing food and transporting it around the world the health costs of antibiotic resistance promoted by the intensive use of antibiotics in livestock production and the environmental costs of overpackaging to help promote sales.

Adulthood and independence

Most individuals with ID show continued support needs as adults, with an increased focus on independence from parents and other primary caregivers. While many continue to live with their parents into adulthood 112 , independent and semi-independent living opportunities are also sought. Parents of adults with ID become increasingly concerned with planning for a time when they will no longer be able to play an active support role 113 . Vocational opportunities and establishments of outlets for social interaction and social support are important areas for intervention, and risk of social isolation is heightened. Appropriate residential supports and meaningful life activities combined with friendship and support from others is associated with increased happiness for these adults 114 . In adulthood, many individuals are vulnerable to experiencing mental and physical health problems which may not be well recognized 115 . It is important to continue to keep in mind the individual's level of...

Leaders and the Process of Change

Enlightened political leadership obviously will be essential to help us to deal with overpopulation, overconsumption, and environmental abuse. Perhaps the best current example of such political leadership on the environmental front is provided by the tiny nation of Bhutan in the Himalayas, sandwiched between India and China. Its king, His Majesty Jigme Singye Wangchuck, in June 1998 voluntarily transferred much of his power to the National Assembly (which now can remove him by a vote of no confidence)22 and is leading the country in developing a program of gross national happiness (GNH). The program is based on four principles economic development, environmental preservation, cultural promotion, and good governance.23

Global Sustainability

Sustaining human society requires many resources, some permanent, others temporary. Culture, for example, is an important factor in human happiness and satisfaction yet is seldom considered a factor in measuring sustainability. Globalization is a process that cannot be reversed, but to be effective and fair it must be managed in the interest of all mankind and the earth we live on. It must be designed to solve global problems of security, need, health care, education, shelter, environmental maintenance, and communication. Today solutions of major problems such as climate change and energy supply require global approaches. Similarly, the major deterrents to human (economic, health, social, cultural, etc.) developments, such as corruption, crime, illicit markets, warfare, misuse of aid funds, terrorism, sickness, biological, nuclear, and chemical weapons, as well as human, labor rights and environmental protection, etc., all require worldwide approaches and actions, which in turn demand...

Towards Sustainability Science

The correlation between income and happiness is surprisingly weak, observed University of Michigan researcher Ronald Inglehart in a 16-nation study of 170,000 people. Once comfortable, more money provides diminishing returns. Lottery winners and the 100 wealthiest Americans listed in Forbes express only slighter greater happiness than the average American. While the average American made only 8,700 in today's dollars in 1957, and today makes 20,000, over this period the number of Americans who say they are very happy has declined from 35 to 32 percent. Meanwhile, the divorce rate has doubled, teen suicide rates have tripled, violent crime has quadrupled, and more people are depressed. Today, more than ever before, we have big houses and broken homes, high incomes and low morale, secure rights and diminishing civility. We celebrate our prosperity, but yearn for a sense of purpose. In an age of plenty we are hungry for what money cannot buy. Having secured human rights and affluence, we...

What Is Wealth Anyhow

The road from feudalism to liberal democracy (using the words loosely) consists largely of an evolutionary shift in the hierarchy of 'rights' in law. The abolition of slavery in Europe and America during the 19th century was merely the final acknowledgment of a sea-change, which coincided roughly with the Protestant Reformation. The emergence of scientific modes of thought and humanist philosophy between the 16th and 18th centuries in Europe set 'human rights' - for example, 'life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness' - above property rights and hierarchical obligations to the King, or to one's feudal or caste superior. The remnants of the feudal hierarchical system have not totally disappeared. They remain, of course, in the military 'chain of command', the university and the Catholic Church. The 'values' debate between fundamentalist religions and secular society is about competing hierarchies of rights, especially as regards the roles of men and women in marriage and the conflict...

The utilitarian approach

The conventional microeconomic view of consumption is derived in a rather circular fashion from assumptions about individual behaviour. It is axiomatic in neo-classical economics that individuals are rational utility-maximisers, that is to say they calculate and follow the course of economic action which brings them the most utility (benefit, pleasure or satisfaction) that they can afford. A typical microeconomics textbook states 'we assume that consumers seek to allocate their expenditures among all the goods and services that they might buy so as to gain the greatest possible satisfaction. We say that consumers try to maximise their satisfaction, or their utility.' (Lipsey and Harbury, 1992 37). Individuals consume goods and services in free markets with perfect competition, and it is presumed that this behaviour reveals inherent preferences, and illustrates utility-maximisation, and so consumption acts as an analogue for human happiness or wellbeing. Questions of how preferences...

The Conservation Movement

Utilitarian conservation began to displace the earlier policies of free disposition of federal lands between the 1880s and the beginning of World War I. Utilitarianism, an ethic developed by philosophers Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-73) in England, was based on the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Utility meant putting the land to work to promote people's happiness. The conservation ethic of the early twentieth century added the idea of time, captured in the phrase of conservationist WJ McGee (1853-1912), the greatest good of the greatest number for the longest time. 4

The Nature of the Problem

The American Declaration of Independence argued the same point All men sic are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. This primacy of the individual over the state became a hallmark feature of the U.S. government, and thus our modern worldview was written into a federal constitution and into a national psyche No longer did we have primary moral or psychological responsibilities to the society. Similarly, U.S. expansionism by the right of our manifest destiny expressed a moral imperative to use whatever needed to be used in order for the great experiment of liberty to grow and possess the whole of the continent (White, 1991, p. 73).

Explaining Public Trust in Institutions

Sense, increased knowledge could enhance perceived self-efficacy, and perhaps even life satisfaction and happiness, all of which may generate a more positive view, in general, towards the system around us (see, for example, Kornberg and Clark, 1992). However, previous theories and findings within this area seem to suggest that increased knowledge might have a double-edged influence it may also decrease the level of trust in institutions. The rationale behind such development would be that increased knowledge makes people more independent of these institutions. Therefore, the argument goes, people will become more critical towards their competence. Such a development would be in line with the 'new politics' argument, where enhanced political resources and skills are believed to decrease the level of trust in institutions (Listhaug, 1995). It would also correspond to the idea of materialism and post-materialism, where increasing educational levels are thought to lead to postmaterial...

The Rights Of Future Generations

Yet this paternalism, if that is what it is, is of a peculiar kind. It is not paternalism about the welfare of future generations for whatever policy we choose is likely to be optimal for the individuals and interests it helps to create. Rather, it is paternalism about the character of future individuals, their environment, and their values. It is a concern about the character of the future itself. We want individuals to be happier, but we also want them to have surroundings to be happier about. We want them to have what is worthy of happiness. We want to be able to respect them and to merit their good opinion. How may we do this except by identifying what is best in our world and trying to preserve it How may we do this except by determining, as well as we can, what is worth saving, and then by assuming that this is what they will want

Saving the American Experiment

We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

The consequentialist side of environmental ethics

There are different versions of consequentialism according to what it is about an action's effects that counts for its being right or wrong, and whether actions are evaluated individually or collectively. Utilitarianism is a version of consequentialism in which only the effects of actions in respect to the pleasure, happiness, and or preferences of sentient beings are relevant to actions being right or wrong. Although utilitarians usually limit the moral community to humans, Jeremy Bentham suggested that it include all animals capable of pleasure and pain a position not fully developed until almost two hundred years later, by Peter Singer.9 Usually, utilitarians evaluate the actions of each person individually, but in the case of public policy decisions, the theory might be applied to assess the actions of a society taken collectively.10, 11

A lifespan review of developmental neuroanatomy

Functional neuroanatomy is the basis of our understanding of the human condition, as is an understanding of how that anatomy interacts with the body and its environment a complex dance. What we do know is that almost any behavior, even a slight deviation in heartbeat interval, may be influenced by myriad factors within the nervous system. A deviation of heartbeat interval can be influenced by fluctuations in physical activity, thinking, and emotional status 15, 16 . Our exploration of brain-behavior relationships is further complicated by language, and more specifically the definition of constructs that are chosen to define these relationships. Take, for example, our understanding of a change in heartbeat interval and its relationship to emotion. Constructs such as fear, anger, sadness, and happiness describe rather large subsets of behavior. In order to capture these emotions at a brain level, Arne Ohman has suggested that emotion is a flexibly organized ensemble of responses, which...

Sustainable societies

Second, some deep-greens argue that the sustainable society that would replace the present consumer society would provide for wider and more profound forms of fulfilment than that provided by the consumption of material objects. This may profitably be seen as part of the contention made by some greens that the sustainable society would be a spiritually fulfilling place in which to live. There has recently been something of a boom in 'happiness studies', and it has been pointed out that there is no correlation between the raw wealth of a society and the happiness of its citizens (Layard, 2003, 2005). Western societies have become richer over the past fifty years, but they have not necessarily become happier. There are a number of reasons for this which it would be inappropriate to detail here suffice to say that happiness research has lent some support to the long-standing green contention that fulfilment is not a necessary function of wealth, and that Gross Domestic Product is a poor...

Thomas Robert Malthus

Constantly tend to outrun subsistence unless there are severe limits on reproduction is regularly cited to this day. But more cited than read, he is the most misinterpreted scholar in population studies. Published anonymously in 1798 as a long mainly theoretical pamphlet when he was a country vicar aged thirty-two, it was succeeded by five attributed and much more documented editions between 1803 and 1826, becoming a massive and very different work retaining the initial thesis but entitled An Essay on the Principle of Population, or A View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness, with An Inquiry into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which It Occasions.

The Dwight Harrington Terry Foundation Lectures on Religion in the Light of Science and Philosophy

The deed of gift declares that the object of this foundation is not the promotion of scientific investigation and discovery, but rather the assimilation and interpretation of that which has been or shall be hereafter discovered, and its application to human welfare, especially by the building of the truths of science and philosophy into the structure of a broadened and purified religion. The founder believes that such a religion will greatly stimulate intelligent effort for the improvement of human conditions and the advancement of the race in strength and excellence of character. To this end it is desired that a series of lectures be given by men eminent in their respective departments, on ethics, the history of civilization and religion, biblical research, all sciences and branches of knowledge which have an important bearing on the subject, all the great laws of nature, especially of evolution . . . also such interpretations of literature and sociology as are in accord with the...

Shifting Values in Response to Climate Change

Ues as a way of helping humans avert ecological catastrophe. For just as scientific research has documented that materialistic, self-enhancing values contribute to climate change, the pursuit of intrinsic values has been empirically associated with more sustainable and climate-friendly ecological activities. What's more, to ensure that ecological damage is not borne primarily by the most vulnerable (whether that be poor people, other species, or future generations), a shift toward intrinsic values will again be beneficial, as such aims promote more empathy and higher levels of pro-social and cooperative behavior. And, in a happy convergence, a shift toward intrinsic values may also benefit humanity's well-being whereas dozens of studies show that materialistic, self-enhancing goals are associated with lower life satisfaction and happiness, as well as higher depression and anxiety, intrinsic values and goals promote greater personal well-being.7

Some opponents of utilitarianism

Remembering always that when asking whether a life is 'happy' one needn't be asking simply whether it is filled with pleasure (though pleasure could be very important), I think no limit can be set to how much happiness we ought to struggle to bring into existence. Just let's beware of struggling so very hard that we all become unhappy, or of demanding that individuals should work for the happiness of others by making sacrifices much larger than can be expected of ordinary mortals. Astonishingly many professional philosophers oppose all ways of thinking which are even vaguely on the above lines. Scores of them recognize no moral call to keep the human race in existence if waving a hand were enough to guarantee the existence of a trillion happy galaxy-colonizing humans, they would see no duty to wave. And scores of others imagine that by rejecting utilitarianism they are somehow strengthening the case for keeping the human race in existence. They allege that the utilitarian...

Climate Colors Life Satisfaction

Climate-culture links in man are a touchy subject given their history of untenable single-factor determinism (for an overview, see Sommers & Moos, 1976), even to the point of climate-based racism (e.g., Huntington, 1945). The topic needs to be handled with care, including a clear definition of climate and replications of climate-culture links found. Under the title Assessing Thermal Climate,'' I therefore pay ample attention to the choice of a climate index that goes beyond the average level of temperature, incorporating seasonal variations in temperature. Harsh climate is defined, and some testable links between climatic demands, survival needs, and life satisfaction are proposed in the section Climate, Needs, and Satisfaction.'' The following section, Winters, Summers, and Life Satisfaction,'' contains a report of cross-national associations between greater climatic demands, on the one hand, and less happiness and more suicide as presumed opposite indicators of culturally...

The Underlying Tautology

If the preference-utilitarianism of contemporary welfare economics has any basis in the moral theory of Utilitarianism it must meet two conditions. First, it has to judge actions, choices, or policies according to their consequences. Second, it must use an empirical conception of the good, such as happiness, to evaluate policies in relation to those consequences. The preference-utilitarianism associated with contemporary welfare economics fails on both these criteria. This kind of utilitarianism is not a consequentialist theory. This approach allocates resources to those willing beforehand to pay the most for them. There seems to be no concern with, or even reference to, the actual consequences of that allocation. Wefare economics cannot be a consequentialist theory because it measures welfare or utility in terms of the expectations that lead to actions (expected utility), not the consequences (actual utility) that result from them. According to Goodstein, economists assume that the...

The Ecological Self The Self Beyond the Self

How could we possibly become so identified with nature that we protect it as we would protect ourselves W. Fox (1990a), an ecophiloso-pher, argued that we develop identification by experiencing the joys and pains of others. Small children learn to identify with others as they observe others' happiness, disappointment, anger, or joy. Similarly, we identify with the natural world when we experience commonality with it. We usually find it easy to identify with our pets Deborah has no trouble believing her dog Sophie has emotional reactions of happiness or shame. But it is more difficult to identify with a slug that crawls into Sophie's food dish.

Consumption and Satisfaction

In the aggregate, there is abundant evidence that, once basic biological needs for food, shelter, clothing, and health care are met and a standard of living providing some leisure time and recreation is adopted, further consumption doesn't provide much increased satis-faction.29 The data for this are relatively unambiguous.30 In the United States, per capita real income (a surrogate for consumption) doubled between 1957 and 1992, but public opinion polls showed no increase in reported happiness. There also was no increase in happiness in Japan between 1958 and 1987 despite more than a quadrupling of GNP.31 A near tripling of personal income in European countries between 1960 and 1990 similarly produced no increase in reported satisfaction.32

A broader understanding of wealth

Improving wellbeing and needs-satisfaction are known as 'voluntary simplifiers'. This movement began in the 1970s in response to the emerging environmental 'limits to growth' debate as well as a growing disenchantment with materialism and an interest in personal development (Elgin, 1981 Etzioni, 1998). Adopting a lifestyle of voluntary simplicity involves choosing to consume less (perhaps entailing working less and accepting a cut in income) and embracing a less materially-intensive lifestyle, in search of greater happiness and fulfilment. In the 1990s the same principles were characterised as a 'downshifting' trend of cash-rich and time-poor professionals cutting their working hours and income in exchange for simpler living and a higher quality of life (Ghazi and Jones, 1997). Some voluntary simplifiers emphasise the environmental aspects of their lifestyles, and Simms (2003) explicitly recalls wartime rationing as a model for restraint in consumption in his model of an...

Real Growth Promoting the Well Being of People and Nature

Has America's pursuit of growth and ever-greater material abundance brought true happiness and satisfaction in life Happiness is a complicated subject. Almost everyone wants to be happy and lead a life of genuine satisfaction. Yet many major works of art and literature and many of the deepest insights have in fact been products of unhappy, even tormented minds. Moreover, happiness can and does have many meanings. Concepts of happiness range all the way from a shallow, hedonistic pursuit of instant gratification to the Buddhist emphasis on finding happiness in recognizing the futility of striving and in the movement beyond self to compassion. Most of the great philosophers from antiquity forward have wrestled with happiness. What are the wellsprings of true happiness Where does happiness fit into the pantheon of goals worthy of our species Darrin McMahon, in his wonderful book Happiness A History, traces these questions down through the centuries. McMahon finds the origins of the right...

The Invisible Hand And Economic

Why is economic performance a good thing why might it be thought to be normative One answer lies outside economics, for example, in the uncontroversial findings of social psychology. Social psychologists have shown that the performance of an economy - as distinct from WTP -strongly affects perceived or subjective social well-being. Stutzer and Frey summarize the factors that relate to happiness When people do get to be better off, higher income scarcely raises happiness, and then only for a limited period of time. Other determinants of happiness more strongly affect it, particularly the condition of unemployment, which strongly depresses whereas, institutional factors, such as political participation rights and the extent of government decentralization, raises people's satisfaction with their lives.61 Carol Graham has written, Most studies find that inflation and unemployment have negative effects on happiness.62 R. J. Shiller found that people associate inflation with nonpecuniary...

Chronicling the Good Life

Since the establishment of the United States, there have been two opposing themes of popular culture. The first theme, a materialistic one, emphasized a belief in happiness and success through technology, material wealth, and upward social mobility, while the second theme, a simpler one, sought happiness and success in a life of simplicity, one with few possessions, and a spiritual connection. Over the 230-plus years that these two themes permeated American society, they have alternated between being the majority and minority views. During years of prosperity, the materialistic theme dominated, whereas during more modest times the simpler theme was emphasized.

The goal of environmental stewardship

A point that is frequently made about such stewardship is that many of the actions that must be taken to combat global warming are good to do anyway because they will lead towards the sustainability that is essential if we are to live in a world where happiness and justice thrive - the sort of world that most people long to see. Seeing action on climate change as a catalyst for these other changes provides even more impetusfor immediate andaggres-sive action.

Conceptions of international climate change justice

(1996) argues that individuals have at least the right to subsistence, for without it no other rights can be exercised. Thus, if the burdens of climate change inhibit subsistence rights - as they will do for many if the scientists' predictions about effects on ecosystems come true - the distribution of benefits and burdens is not just and equitable. Conceptions of justice and equity based on causality or responsibility assert, simply, that those responsible for causing harm are responsible for ending and ultimately righting that wrong. According to Shue, the obligation to restore those whom one has harmed is acknowledged even by those who reject any general obligation to help strangers. this is because one ought even more fundamentally to do no harm in the first place (Shue 1995 386).8 The United States and other developed countries acknowledged when they joined the FCCC that they deserve the bulk of the blame for climate change, and that they have a responsibility to aid other...

Needed Actions And Risks To Overcome The Pending Nooil Crisis

We define the risk of an undertaking as the probability of encountering negative effects involving (a) hazards to human health, safety, welfare, environment (b) technical feasibility, operability, the ability to deliver and (c) financial feasibility. We further assume that all stakeholders believe in a democratic world that favors the well-being, health, happiness, and freedom of all citizens on our planet. That is, we exclude consideration of dictatorships and societies that would not hesitate to eliminate a substantial portion of the world's population to balance energy supplies and demands for the benefit of a few.

What on Earth Are We Doing

F f hat will your future be like If you are like most people, you have hopes of a happy life with your family and friends. You desire secure, meaningful work, good physical health, rewarding interests, and enough leisure time to enjoy them. Yet most of us also have a notion, ranging from an inkling to a grave fear, that our future will not be pleasant, or at least not as comfortable, as our present. National and world events compound the vague realization for many of us that we are operating in a way that cannot be sustained for more than a few

Considering virtues

To assert the relevance of the virtues to green politics and citizenship is not in itself to endorse virtue ethics as such. Virtues might be taken to be important without this necessarily entailing a commitment to a particular claim in metaethics. The position defended here is the firstorder claim that consideration of the virtues is a crucial part of green ethics and politics because exercise of the virtues is practically efficacious. On this account, virtues concerning the environment are directed outward toward the realization of environmental goods (and justified by their success in producing those goods) rather than human well-being or happiness (eudaemonia) in the Aristotelian sense. It might therefore be said that an eco-virtue ethics as presented here is impure because the virtues, traditionally understood, are situated within a conception of human flourishing and presuppose an account of what it is to be fully human. In this, a virtue is a character trait that a human being...

DcodIc

And valuations of tiles that indicates satisfaction with the Over time, the sets that generate the most happiness are disto more and more people until everyone has the same veris then marketed. Indeed, there is some advantage to marketing a of different versions to reflect the fact that people differ in

Selfinterest

Man as the basis for economic development. Mill was heavily influenced by the utilitarian philosophy of Jeremy Bentham, a close friend of his father. Utilitarianism proposed that people do the things which are most likely to bring them the maximum pleasure and avoid the things which are most likely to bring them pain. According to the utilitarians, pleasures did not differ between themselves in kind, but only in strength or intensity. This became an important element of the new science of human behaviour, because it insisted that happiness (or utility) could be measured in a single currency. For the economists, that currency was a monetary one. Mill himself was profoundly troubled by the implications of the emerging viewpoint. Shortly before he died in 1873, he made a crucial distinction which ought logically had it come a little earlier to have sunk the entire enterprise. 'Those only are happy,' he declared in his Autobiography, 'who have their minds fixed on some object other than...

Nspraton value

How should we present our success stories A few writers, especially those from academic background, give more importance to technical details and the 'how to do it' part. Though this is important, if it is only statistics-ridden hard technological detail, that tends to repel the reader. It is the human interest that attracts everybody. Once you use this as an enticement, the technical details can follow. Let these be very simple, crisp and presented in such a way that anybody can easily understand them. Readers easily grasp and remember the information that is blended with human plight, suffering, happiness, etc.

Concessions

Or 'consequentialist' or 'anti-Kantian' or 'rejecting deontology'. Like two very well-known philosophers, G.E.Moore and J.J.C. Smart, I never have managed to see why it would be my duty to do something which I knew would make the world really and truly worse than something else I wanted to do. (Smart is famous for insisting on this simple point and refusing to accept that alleged counter-examples disprove it.17 This has led to an easily guessed pun about outwitting the opposition.) It would be nice if people who think like Moore and Smart could be treated merely as mistaken, instead of as 'showing a corrupt mind',18 when they urge that opposing doctrines are needlessly complicated but in ethics there's no master formula for establishing who is right. Morally fervent folk, long trained in philosophy, might therefore think we had practically no duty to keep the human race in existence, regardless of how much happiness future humans could be expected to have. No firm logical proof could...

Forgoing Freedom

As you can imagine, Skinner had a tough time convincing U.S. citizens of his views about individual freedom. Our attachment to the concept of personal freedom is a central feature of democratic society. We experience personal freedom from our unusual degree of personal mobility (we drive cars, travel, and change residences far more than citizens of any other country) from our cultural heroes like Horatio Alger and Rocky, who teach us that anything is possible with personal effort and from our political heritage, which emphasizes the pursuit of individual happiness. We not only think of ourselves as free, we feel belittled by the idea that we are not. Behavioral engineering elicits fears of Orwell's 1984 or Huxley's Brave New World. Sinister motives are attributed to those who would implement behavioral technology, and Skinner himself has been badly misrepresented and misunderstood as a cold, cruel scientist.

Oil and America

Almost unanimous rejection by Congress of a recent proposal by the Administration to introduce a small energy consumption tax. According to Harris, 'The American domestic response to the Gulf crisis has so far shown a combination of childishness and evasion of reality so complete that serious political leadership no longer seems possible in this poll-dominated democracy ' American motorists, he pointed out, already enjoyed by far the cheapest fuel in the developed world 'yet to listen to the phone-ins, an increase of about 10 cents on this bargain price is an intolerable threat to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness'. As a result of its petroleum profligacy, the USA had become 'highly vulnerable, a permanent hostage to events in the Gulf' and yet, to the amazement of this distinguished Financial Times journalist, the US public was apparently quite happy to expose thousands of its young soldiers to a desert war, and at a huge cost to the nation, 'but will not face the bill for...

Why Not Extinction

In trying to show that mistakes really are being made here, the next pages will be drawing on things I have written earlier.7 Throughout they will follow the long-established philosophical practice of taking 'happy' lives to mean lives which are worth having, rather than simply ones which are enjoyed. The life of Vlad the Impaler, filled with joy in acts of torture, could therefore be a very poor example of a happy life.

Collective identity

One of the justifiable criticisms of the over-emphasis on protest is that it presents a picture of what social movements do which suggests that all other aspects of the movement are a form of preparation for action directed against the state. It also lays too much emphasis on the negative and reactive dimension of social movements. The development of a common identity and a culture can seem as if it is merely a stage that must be passed before the full maturity of 'political' (state-oriented) action is reached. But, if the concept of political action is defined more broadly, action directed at the state becomes one of a range of protests. For instance, when green activists in Manchester dressed as aliens and acted as if they were tourists visiting Earth to see the curious sight of Christmas shoppers buying more and more goods in pursuit of happiness (Purkis 2000), they were making a political argument. To buy more and more goods which people don't really need and may not want, mainly...

Wang Yangming

The difference is this the utilitarian motto in the old version of the theory is 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number'. The utilitarians expanded our moral concern beyond our species to include the wellbeing of animals (Bentham and Singer), and further expanded our moral concern to future generations. Confronting environmental crisis on a global scale, people have realized that if the environment is endangered, there is no longer any happiness for any being. So an expanded utilitarianism will need to be supported by some kind of eco-holistic view. If we, as moral agents, go one step further, expanding moral subjects further than sentient beings, and include in our moral consideration the natural environment that is relative to human activities, then we will come very close to the position of Wang Yang-ming.

Peter Singer

Singer was also deeply influenced by his Oxford supervisor, Professor R.M.Hare, one of the leading philosophical advocates of utilitarianism, a moral outlook developed in the last century by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Like other consequentialist moral theories, utilitarianism claims that our ultimate moral aim should be to achieve outcomes which are best when the interests of all those affected are considered impartially. Utilitarianism also claims that the best outcome is one which contains the greatest sum of utility, a term which usually refers to pleasure minus pain, preference satisfaction minus frustration, or simply happiness.

Consumer Behavior

A better understanding of consumerism as a life style is a fundamental challenge to psychological research. What makes people attach such great importance to the acquisition of ever more material possessions Why do acquisitions seem almost invariably to lead to the desire for additional acquisitions Is it a matter of the inherent insatiability of human avarice Does it reflect the effectiveness of the advertising industry promoting the idea that happiness depends on consumption Is there any evidence of such a dependence

Overconsumption

Yet, increased consumption does not deliver the really important goods Research shows that people are not happier when they own more things. Above a minimal poverty level, reports of personal happiness are completely unrelated to financial income or material possessions. Since 1950, the purchasing power of Americans has doubled, yet their reports of personal happiness has remained essentially constant (see Fig. 3.4). Instead of contributing to our happiness, consumerism is more likely to detract from it because it reduces our potential for building personal happiness. Again, to quote Durning (1991) FIG. 3.4. While inflation-adjusted income has risen, self-reported happiness has not. From Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55, p. 61. American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission. Empirical research on happiness supports Durning's claims. When asked what makes you happy the vast majority of people mention, before...

The Wellsprings

If incomes are such weak generators of well-being in our more affluent societies, what things do produce happiness and unhappiness Most important, it appears that our genes do. Some of us are just congeni-tally happy or unhappy. Our genes seem to account for about half the variation in individual happiness. Layard has summed up the factors neatly What doesn't matter We can begin with five features that on average have a negligible effect on happiness. The first is age if we trace people through their life, average happiness is remarkably stable, despite the ups and then downs of income, and despite increasing ill-health. The second is gender in nearly every country men and women are roughly equally happy. Looks too make little difference. Likewise, IQ is only weakly correlated with happiness, as are physical and mental energy (self-rated). Finally, education has only a small direct effect on happiness. . . . So what really does affect us Seven factors stand out our family...

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