Ocean Sequestration

Another strategy proposes to store CO2 in the world's oceans. Several methods have been suggested. One option is direct injection. In this method, CO2 is pumped directly into the water at extreme depths of 1,148-11,811 feet (350-3,600 m). The CO2 forms a mass on the seabed and transforms into solid CO2 clathrate hydrates, which gradually dissolve into the water around it. There are problems associated with this method, however. It could contribute to ocean acidity and could lead to increased...

C

Cai, Ming 121 calcium carbonate 38-39, 53 California 69, 105, 165 Callendar, Guy S. 4, 235c Callendar Effect 4 cancer drugs 103 cap-and-trade programs 91-92, 168, 238c Cape May National Wildlife Refuge 160-162 Cape May warbler 153 cap rock 50 carbonates 56 carbonate salts 53 carbon balance 17 carbon budget 94, 97 carbon capture and storage (CCS) 75, 77-79, 210-213 carbon credits 57 carbon cycle 30-32, 38, 59, 120 carbon dioxide (CO2) Arrhenius's studies 3-4 Callendar's studies 4 common sources...

Adaptation Strategies

Even if they cost a little more initially, the savings involved usually pay for themselves via lower energy bills, and the environment benefits as well. Ken Ostrowski, leader of the project report team, says, What the report calls out is the fact that the potential is so substantial for energy efficiency. Not that we will do it, but the potential is just staggering here in the U.S. There is a lot of inertia, and a lot of barriers. The country can do the job with...

Types Of Carbon Sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by various carbon sinks. Principal carbon sinks include agricultural sinks, forests, geologic formations, and oceanic sinks. Carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) occurs when CO2 is absorbed by trees, plants, and crops through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass, such as tree trunks, branches, foliage, and roots, as well as in the soil. For a more in-depth discussion of the specifics of actual...

Discovery Of The Greenhouse Effect

It was during the 19th century that scientists realized that gases such as CO2 found within the atmosphere cause a greenhouse effect that regulates the atmosphere's temperature. Ironically, the discovery of the greenhouse effect did not happen because scientists were trying to understand global warming it happened because they were searching for the mechanism that triggered ice ages. In an effort to understand the connection between CO2 and glacial periods, their interest was in studying the...

Production of Biofuels

The Environmental Defense Fund has determined that a key factor in how effective biofuels are in fighting global warming is the energy efficiency of their production methods. These include everything from running plows and harvesters to manufacturing pesticides and fertilizer to converting the material into fuel and transporting it. Improving land use through sustainable practices such as no-till farming, and boosting energy efficiencies make biofuels more effective at reducing heat-trapping...

Sinks And Sources

In terms of the global warming issue, storing CO2 in reservoirs or sinks is desirable in order to keep the CO2 out of the atmosphere so that it does not contribute to ever-increasing atmospheric temperatures. There are several mechanisms whereby carbon can be put into storage. During the process of photosynthesis, plants convert CO2 from the atmosphere into carbohydrates and release oxygen during the process. Trees in forests over a period of years are able to store large amounts of carbon,...

Forests Role In Climate Change

Forests represent a critical resource on Earth because they provide habitat to more than half of the Earth's living species, as well as help slow global warming through the storage and sequestration of carbon. Forests also affect the rainfall regime of an area and are critical sources of food, drinking water, and medicine. Through the sequestration of carbon, forests have a direct effect on the climate. The vegetation and soils in the forest help drive the global carbon cycle by sequestering...

The Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest encompasses extensive forests, topography that creates abrupt changes in climate and ecosystems over short distances, with mountain and marine environments in close proximity. The Northwest provides about one-fourth of the nation's softwood lumber and plywood. The fertile lowlands of eastern Washington produce 60 percent of the nation's apples and large fractions of its other tree fruit. Population and economic growth of this area has been twice the national rate since...

The Top Carbon Dioxide Emitters

The world's countries contribute different amounts of heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere. Carbon emissions from all sources of fossil fuel burning for a maximum period from 1751 to 2004 (or as long as a record is available) are shown. The following table lists the 20 countries with the highest carbon emissions. PER CAPITAL EMISSIONS (TONS CAPITAL) PER CAPITAL EMISSIONS (TONS CAPITAL) Source Marland, G., T. A. Boden, R. J. Andres 2004. Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions. In Trends A...

Journal Articles

Abrupt Climate Change. Scientific American 291, no. 5 (November 2004) 62-69. This article discusses the Great Ocean Conveyor Belt current and how global warming could shut it down and trigger another ice age. Bagla, Pallava. Melting Himalayan Glaciers May Doom Towns. National Geographic News (May 7, 2002) Available online. URL himalaya.html. Accessed August 12, 2009. This article discusses the overflow of lakes from melting glaciers and the hazards they pose to nearby...

Radiation Transmission

The Earth reflects about 30 percent of the incoming solar radiation. The other 70 percent is absorbed and warms the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans. In order to maintain an energy balance, so the Earth does not get too hot or cold, the amount of incoming energy must roughly equal the amount of outgoing energy. The insolation occurs in the visible portion of the spectrum. The radiation that is emitted from objects that have been heated on Earth, however, peaks in the infrared portion of the...

Public Lands

In the United States, one-third of the land is owned by the public and administered by the federal government namely, the National Park Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and the Bureau of Land Management. The total area size of public land is roughly 700 million acres 283 million hectares . These areas are protected and managed for different purposes some, such as designated wilderness areas, are kept pristine and natural because of their inherent beauty, exceptional quality, or unique habitat....

The Role Of Refuges

Northern Alaska is expected to experience the most extreme of the effects, particularly in the winter. The researchers also project that the ground will continue to thaw and that the upper 30-35 feet 9-11 m of permafrost will probably melt by 2100. In addition, precipitation will increase up to 25 percent in the north and northwest, but decrease by 10 percent along the southern coast. Soils will dry out due to increased evaporation, and wildfires will become more prevalent....