Acknowledgments

Many people inspired, assisted, or in some other way enabled me to complete this work. I have tried to name all of the relevant people, and I offer apologies to anyone inadvertently omitted.

Many people over the years have guided me into the intricacies of the agricultural enterprise. Without their insights and guidance, I would not have been able to complete this work. Several people consented to be interviewed in depth about their own roles in the events recounted here or about the part played by someone they knew. Of particular importance were R. K. Agrawal, Roger Austin, John Baldwin, G. Douglas, H. Bell, John Bingham, Norman E. Borlaug, Peter Day, Scott Findlay, K. S. Gill, Nigel Harvey, H. K. Jain, Virgil A. Johnson, Francis G. H. Lupton, S. P. McClean, A. M. Michael, C. R. Mohapatra, Benjamin Peary Pal, R. S. Paroda, N. S. Randhawa, M. V. Rao, Alan Roelfs, Lyle Sebranek, B. P. Singh, D. N. Srivastava, Ruth Engledow Stekete, M. S. Swaminathan, J. P. Tandon, and Orville A. Vogel. I am also indebted to Helen Weaver for allowing me access to Warren Weaver's private papers.

A number of students at the Evergreen State College provided invaluable assistance in gathering and summarizing tremendous numbers of documents: Bobbie Barnett, Peggy Britt, David Giglio, James Jenkins, Michael Kent, Linda R. P. Knight, Michael MacSems, Ken Steffenson, and Mariusz Twardowski. To each of them, I am very grateful.

Books are mostly words in a sequence, but they are invariably aided by illustrations. I am indebted to Tim F. Knight for his excellent drawings and maps, prepared especially for this text.

Over the years, it has been my privilege to work closely with a number of colleagues, each of whom has taught me a great deal about environmental and agricultural issues, broadly conceived. Inevitably they have influenced this book for the better. Especially important were Mark Abner, Richard Alexander, Wallis Barker, Pamela Bennett-Cummings, Mike Beug, Peggy Britt, Jovana Brown, Paul Butler, Susan Campbell, Barbara Cellarius, Doris Cellarius, Richard Cellarius, Ellie Chambers, John Cushing, Allen Davis, Betsy Diffendal, Ken Dolbeare, Roland Duerksen, Larry Eickstaedt, Barbara Ellison, Curtis Ellison, Hugo Flores, Steve Ganey, José Gômez, Bill Green, Burt Guttman, Jeanne Hahn, Patrick Hill, Virginia Hill, Thomas Johnson, Lou Ellyn Jones, Teresa Koppang, Karel Kurka, Pat Labine, Eugene Leach, Mike Lunine, Joanne Markert, David Marr, Eugene Metcalf, David Milne, Rick Momeyer, Ralph Murphy, Lin Nelson, William Newell, Nancy Nicholson, Andy Northedge, Nicola Ostertag, Barbara Patterson, Terry Perlin, Ron Pratt, Tom Rainey, Karen Riener, Meredith Savage, Lars Schoultz, Darius Sivin, Stan Sloss, Bob Sluss, Barbara Smith, Oscar Soule, Fred Stone, José Suârez, Pete Taylor, Jennifer Thomas, Phil Trask, Jude Van Buren, Barbara Whitten, Hugh Wilder, Denny Wilkins, Tom Womeldorff, York Wong, Ron Woodbury, and Byron Youtz. I am particularly indebted for the stimulation and critical feedback I received from Ralph Murphy and Tom Rainey, for they encouraged and guided me in thinking about political ecology.

A number of environmental studies specialists, environmental historians, and scholars on agriculture, science, and human affairs have stimulated and guided my thoughts on how to approach these topics. Of particular importance were Robert Anderson, John Baldwin, Jerry Berberet, Paul Brass, Terence Byres, Judith Carney, Karen Colligan-Taylor, William Cronon, A1 Crosby, Donald Dahlstan, Thomas Dunlap, Richard Garcia, Paul Gersper, Richard Haynes, Douglas Helms, Carl Huffaker, Donald Hughes, Edmund Levy, Everett Mendelsohn, Carolyn Merchant, William Murdoch, Richard Norgaard, John Opie, Robert Paehlke, Paolo Palladino, Dick Perrine, David Pimentel, A. Rahman, Peter Rosset, Margaret Rossiter, Vernon Ruttan, A1 Schwartz, Ray Smith, Richard White, Donald Worster, and Angus Wright. I am especially indebted to Richard Haynes, editor of Agriculture and Human Values, who took an early interest in this project.

James Cook, Helena Meyer-Knapp, and Tom Womeldorff were kind enough to read excerpts of the text in draft form, and I benefited greatly from their comments.

Gathering material for any extended study is not possible without the expertise and advice of many librarians and archivists. I am particularly indebted to Mrs. Rama Agarwal, Elaine Anders, Hannah Bloom, Claire Collier, Richard Crawford, Marjorie Dalby, Barbara Glendenning, Joan Green, Lois Hendrickson, Michele Hiltzik, Terry Hubbard, Don Jackanicz, Paul Kaiser, A. L. Kapoor, Ernestine Kimbro, Norma Kobzina, Penelope Krosch, Jacki Majewski, Sally Marks, Pat Matheny-White, Frank Motley, Ann Newhall, Emily Oakhill, Harold Oakhill, Carol O'Brien, Neenah Payne, Sarah Pedersen, Barbara Radkey, Sara Rideout, Tom Rosenbaum, Melissa Smith, Darwin Stapleton, Randy Stilson, Sandy Swantz, Carolyn Treft, Roseann Variano, Evangelina Viesca, Teresa Velasco, Valerie Walter, Beth Weil, and Randy Wilson. I am particularly indebted to the Agricultural Research Council Archives, Cambridge University Libraries and Archives, Centra de Investigaciones de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Delhi School of Economics Library, Ford Foundation Archives,

Indian Agricultural Research Institute Library, Indian National Archives, Oxford University Archives, Plant Breeding Institute Library, Rockefeller Foundation Archives, the Evergreen State College Library, United States National Archives, University of California, Berkeley, Libraries, and University of Minnesota Archives.

The initial stages of research for this book were conducted while I was an academic visitor at the Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Gordon Conway graciously made this visit possible and took a genuine interest in the book's content. Gordon later served as the representative of the Ford Foundation in New Delhi, where he also provided encouragement during one of my trips to India. Several other people at Imperial College also made my stay there very enjoyable: Ian Bell, Richard McCrory, Hilary Morgan, John Peachy, Jules Pretty, and Bashra Salem.

I spent a total of ten weeks on three different occasions in India gathering materials for this study. I am indebted to Craig Davis for first interesting me in Indian issues and to Craig and Ed McCrea for making it possible to visit India for the first time. While in India I was assisted in many ways, both professional and personal, by colleagues Desh Bandhu and D. K. Banerjee and their respective families. Staff at the India International Centre provided a convenient, comfortable place to live while in New Delhi.

Over the years, a number of coworkers at the Evergreen State College provided much assistance and support to this project. Especially important were Paula Butchko, Bonita Evans, David Judd, Jane Lorenzo, Judy Saxton, Jan Stentz, Audrey Streeter, Pam Udovitch, Dee van Brunt, Carolyn Walker, and Karen Wynkoop.

Financial support for this study came from the National Science Foundation (SES-8608372; DIR-8911346; DIR-9012722), from the Smithsonian Institution, Special Foreign Currency Program, and from the Evergreen State College. From the NSF, I am particularly indebted to Rachel Hollander and Ron Overmann; Francine Berkowitz from the Smithsonian was very supportive on a number of occasions. While in India, I was aided on several occasions by the American Institute of Indian Studies, particularly by P. R. Mehendiratta and L. S. Suri.

The editorial staff at Oxford University Press were immensely helpful in preparing the final copy of the manuscript. I am particularly indebted to Kirk Jensen and Cynthia Garver, as well as to the copyeditor, Susan Ecklund.

The most sustained support and encouragement for this study, and some of the best intellectual conversations about it, came from my immediate family, Barbara Bridgman Perkins and Ivan Bridgman Perkins.

Despite the help, encouragement, and support I received from these wonderful people, all the errors of omission and commission remain mine alone.

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