Liquidliquidsolid Multiphasic Systems

This section describes catalytic systems made by a heterogeneous catalyst (e.g., a supported metal, dispersed metals, immobilized organometallic complexes, supported acid-base catalysts, modified zeolites) that is immobilized in a hydrophilic or ionic liquid catalyst-philic phase, and in the presence of a second liquid phase—immiscible in the first phase—made, for example, by an organic solvent. The rationale for this multiphasic system is usually ease in product separation, since it can be removed with the organic phase, and ease in catalyst recovery and reuse; because the latter remains immobilized in the catalyst-philic phase, it can be filtered away, and it does not contaminate the product. These systems often show improved rates as well as selectivities, along with catalyst stabilization.

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