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FORMATION, MECHANISMS, AND MINIMIZATION OF CHLORINATED MICROPOLLUTANTS (DIOXINS) FORMED IN TECHNICAL INCINERATION PROCESSES

Dieter Lenoir, Ernst Anton Feicht, Marchela Pandelova, and Karl-Werner Schramm,

Institut für (Ökologische Chemie, GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, München, Germany

INTRODUCTION

Chlorinated micropollutants are harmful for man and environment due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation.1 Persistent compounds are very stable and difficult to get metabolized and mineralized by biological and chemical processes in the environment, and as a result, they have become ubiquitous in water, sediments, and the atmosphere; bioaccumulation is the result of the lipophilicity of these compounds.1 Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) are not produced purposely like many of other chlorinated technical products, such as chlorinated biocides DDT, lindane, and toxaphene.2 The production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the "dirty dozen" has now been banned worldwide by the Stockholm protocol.3 It should be mentioned that about 3000 halogenated products have now been isolated as natural products in plants, microorganisms, and animals,4 but the total amount of these products is much smaller compared to xenobiotics.

Methods and Reagents for Green Chemistry: An Introduction, Edited by Pietro Tundo, Alvise Perosa, and Fulvio Zecchini

Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

TABLE 8.1 Estimates for Emissions of PCDD/F for Six Different Countries

Austria Germany Japan

Emission Source (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr)

Pulp and paper 4 40

mills

incineration

Chemical production processes

Municipal waste 3 (1-14) 5.4-432 3100-7400

incineration

Hazardous waste 6 (2-10) 0.5-72 460

incineration

Hospital waste 4 (1-11) 5.4 80-240

incineration

Cement kilns

Metal smelting/ 19 (Cl-38) 39-399 250

refining

Traffic (vehicle <1 12.6 0.07

fuel combustion)

Domestic 70 (40-230)

combustion

Combustion of 0.2

wood

Combustion of <1 1.1

coals and lignite

Combustion of oils 1.2

Outdoor burning of straw 10 (4-16)

Netherlands United Kingdom United States (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr)

382 1150 1800-9000

16 11 11-110

2.1 32 1600-16000

110-1100

3.7 1489

Burning of cables and electromotors Drum and barrel reclamation Forest fires Kraft black liquor boilers Cigarette smoking Charcol briquette combustion Various high-temp.

processess Crematoria Accidental fires (Former) use of wood preservatives

Total Basis year

3 16

112 (50-320) 1987-1988

67-926 1990

4000-1990

8400

484 1991

3870 1989

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