FORMATION, MECHANISMS, AND MINIMIZATION OF CHLORINATED MICROPOLLUTANTS (DIOXINS) FORMED IN TECHNICAL INCINERATION PROCESSES
Dieter Lenoir, Ernst Anton Feicht, Marchela Pandelova, and Karl-Werner Schramm,
Institut für (Ökologische Chemie, GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, München, Germany
Chlorinated micropollutants are harmful for man and environment due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation.1 Persistent compounds are very stable and difficult to get metabolized and mineralized by biological and chemical processes in the environment, and as a result, they have become ubiquitous in water, sediments, and the atmosphere; bioaccumulation is the result of the lipophilicity of these compounds.1 Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) are not produced purposely like many of other chlorinated technical products, such as chlorinated biocides DDT, lindane, and toxaphene.2 The production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the "dirty dozen" has now been banned worldwide by the Stockholm protocol.3 It should be mentioned that about 3000 halogenated products have now been isolated as natural products in plants, microorganisms, and animals,4 but the total amount of these products is much smaller compared to xenobiotics.
Methods and Reagents for Green Chemistry: An Introduction, Edited by Pietro Tundo, Alvise Perosa, and Fulvio Zecchini
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
TABLE 8.1 Estimates for Emissions of PCDD/F for Six Different Countries
Austria Germany Japan
Emission Source (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr)
Pulp and paper 4 40
Chemical production processes
Municipal waste 3 (1-14) 5.4-432 3100-7400
Hazardous waste 6 (2-10) 0.5-72 460
Hospital waste 4 (1-11) 5.4 80-240
Metal smelting/ 19 (Cl-38) 39-399 250
Traffic (vehicle <1 12.6 0.07
Domestic 70 (40-230)
Combustion of 0.2
Combustion of <1 1.1
coals and lignite
Combustion of oils 1.2
Outdoor burning of straw 10 (4-16)
Netherlands United Kingdom United States (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr) (g I-TEQ/yr)
382 1150 1800-9000
16 11 11-110
2.1 32 1600-16000
Burning of cables and electromotors Drum and barrel reclamation Forest fires Kraft black liquor boilers Cigarette smoking Charcol briquette combustion Various high-temp.
processess Crematoria Accidental fires (Former) use of wood preservatives
Total Basis year
112 (50-320) 1987-1988
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