Contents

FOREWORD ix

PREFACE xi

CONTRIBUTORS xv

PART 1 GREEN REAGENTS 1

1 The Four-Component Reaction and Other Multicomponent

Reactions of the Isocyanides 3

Ivar Ugi and Birgit Werner

2 Carbohydrates as Renewable Raw Materials:

A Major Challenge of Green Chemistry 23

Frieder W. Lichtenthaler

3 Photoinitiated Synthesis: A Useful Perspective in

Green Chemistry 65

Angelo Albini

4 Dimethyl Carbonate as a Green Reagent 77

Pietro Tundo and Maurizio Selva

PART 2 ALTERNATIVE REACTION CONDITIONS 103

5 Ionic Liquids: "Designer" Solvents for Green Chemistry 105

Natalia V. Plechkova and Kenneth R. Seddon

6 Supported Liquid-Phase Systems in Transition Metal Catalysis 131

Alvise Perosa and Sergei Zinovyev

7 Organic Chemistry in Water: Green and Fast 159

8 Formation, Mechanisms, and Minimization of Chlorinated Micropollutants (Dioxins) Formed in Technical

Incineration Processes 171

Dieter Lenoir, Ernst Anton Feicht, Marchela Pandelova, and Karl-Werner Schramm

PART 3 GREEN CATALYSIS AND BIOCATALYSIS 189

9 Green Chemistry: Catalysis and Waste Minimization 191

Roger A. Sheldon

10 Seamless Chemistry for Sustainability 201

Johan Thoen and Jean Luc Guillaume

11 Enantioselective Metal Catalyzed Oxidation Processes 219

David StC. Black

12 Zeolite Catalysts for Cleaner Technologies 231

Michel Guisnet

13 Acid and Superacid Solid Materials as Noncontaminant

Alternative Catalysts in Refining 251

Jose; M. Lopez Nieto

14 The Oxidation of Isobutane to Methacrylic Acid: An Alternative Technology for MMA Production 265

Nicola Ballarini, Fabrizio Cavani, Helene Degrand, Eric Etienne, Anne Pigamo, Ferruccio Trifiro, and J. L. Dubois

15 Biocatalysis for Industrial Green Chemistry 281

Zhi Li, Martin Held, Sven Panke, Andrew Schmid, Renata Mathys, and Bernard Witholt

INDEX 299

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