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We can now complete the picture and easily visualize a possible long-term future for feedstock and processes, as shown in Figure 10.15. The occurrence of this vision, however, is strongly dependant on the ability of researchers to remove the technological barriers highlighted in the previous section.

Oil-qas based

Renewable resources based 85% ^¡^r.ZTN x%

Oil-qas based

Renewable resources based 85% ^¡^r.ZTN x%

Heat Pressure Catalyst

Broad variety of commodity and differentiated chemicals and plastics

Figure 10.15 Emerging future: Duality in feedstocks and processes.

Heat Pressure Catalyst

Broad variety of commodity and differentiated chemicals and plastics

Figure 10.15 Emerging future: Duality in feedstocks and processes.

• On the one hand, the current petrochemical route would continue to provide the world with the chemicals consumers require. To satisfy the need for a more sustainable development, the petrochemical industry would continue its drive toward a continuous improvement in energy efficiency (see Figure 10.3). This drive will primarily include the continuous improvement of the current crude-oil-based processes while stranded methane or CO2 would be utilized as complementary feedstock.

• In parallel, the existing commodity-grain and -oil processing infrastructure would increasingly produce the carbohydrates needed for bioprocesses to generate low-cost bulk commodity chemicals and biofuels (ethanol, 1-2-propanediol, succinic acid, etc.) as well as the fatty acid esters needed for biodiesel and specialty polymers. For the more distant future, technology and specialty processing is being put in place in order to also use plants as factories and express specific oils, biopharmaceuticals, or polymers in identity-preserved crops.

The realization of this vision will require a multidisciplinary approach where green chemistry will be a key enabler to meet broad technological challenges in a balanced approach. This approach will balance economic profitability, societal satisfaction, and environment protection. One of these challenges relates to bio-processing. Nature operates without pressure or heat, and most of its feedstock is solids. Nature also tends to operate mostly in an aqueous medium. Solids processing and aqueous separations are new challenges the bioprocessing industry will have to face.


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Glasser, W. G.; Northey, R. A.; Schultz, T. P. (Eds.) Lignin: Historical, Biological, and Materials Perspectives, ACS Symposium Series 742, 1999.

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NACHRICHTEN—Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Jahrg. 33 1/2001, pp. 59-70, A. Kruse, ITC.

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  • Berylla
    What is conclusion of green consumer behaviour?
    9 years ago
  • romilda loggia
    What is the general conclusion on green chemistry?
    9 years ago

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