Conclusion

Free Power Secrets

Making Your Own Fuel

Get Instant Access

We can now complete the picture and easily visualize a possible long-term future for feedstock and processes, as shown in Figure 10.15. The occurrence of this vision, however, is strongly dependant on the ability of researchers to remove the technological barriers highlighted in the previous section.

Oil-qas based

Renewable resources based 85% ^¡^r.ZTN x%

Oil-qas based

Renewable resources based 85% ^¡^r.ZTN x%

Heat Pressure Catalyst

Broad variety of commodity and differentiated chemicals and plastics

Figure 10.15 Emerging future: Duality in feedstocks and processes.

Heat Pressure Catalyst

Broad variety of commodity and differentiated chemicals and plastics

Figure 10.15 Emerging future: Duality in feedstocks and processes.

• On the one hand, the current petrochemical route would continue to provide the world with the chemicals consumers require. To satisfy the need for a more sustainable development, the petrochemical industry would continue its drive toward a continuous improvement in energy efficiency (see Figure 10.3). This drive will primarily include the continuous improvement of the current crude-oil-based processes while stranded methane or CO2 would be utilized as complementary feedstock.

• In parallel, the existing commodity-grain and -oil processing infrastructure would increasingly produce the carbohydrates needed for bioprocesses to generate low-cost bulk commodity chemicals and biofuels (ethanol, 1-2-propanediol, succinic acid, etc.) as well as the fatty acid esters needed for biodiesel and specialty polymers. For the more distant future, technology and specialty processing is being put in place in order to also use plants as factories and express specific oils, biopharmaceuticals, or polymers in identity-preserved crops.

The realization of this vision will require a multidisciplinary approach where green chemistry will be a key enabler to meet broad technological challenges in a balanced approach. This approach will balance economic profitability, societal satisfaction, and environment protection. One of these challenges relates to bio-processing. Nature operates without pressure or heat, and most of its feedstock is solids. Nature also tends to operate mostly in an aqueous medium. Solids processing and aqueous separations are new challenges the bioprocessing industry will have to face.

REFERENCES

1. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, 1987, Oxford University Press, New York.

2. Hiller, K.; Kehrer, P. Erdoel Erdgas Kohle, 2000, 116(9), 427.

3. Schneider, W. Phosgene, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 7th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2005.

4. Delledonne, D.; Rivetti, F.; Romagno, U. Appl. Catal.: General, 2001, 221, 241-251.

5. Wu, X. L.; Xiao, M.; Meng, Y. Z.; Lu, Y. X. J. M. catal. A: Chem., 2005, 238, 158162.

6. Ono, Y. Appl. Catal. A: General, 1997, 155, 133-166.

7. Makino, E. Coal liquefaction, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 7th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, 2005.

8. Otsuka, K.; Wang, Y. Appl. Catal., A: General, 2001, 222(1-2), 145-161.

9. Yide, X., Xinhe, B.; Liwu, L. J. Catal., 2003, 216, 386-395.

10. Cherry, J. Novozymes, in Proc. Biorefinery 2004, San Francisco, June 8, 2005.

11. eere.energy.gov/biomass/concentrated_acid.html#commercial

12. Transforming biomass to hydrocarbon mixtures in near-critical or supercritical water, U.S. Patent 6,180,845 B1.

13. Earls, J. D.; White, J. E.; Null, M.; Dettloff, M. J. Chem. Technol., 2004, 1(3), 243-245.

14. Grubbs, R. H. Tetrahedron, 2004, 60, 7117-7140. OTHER USEFUL READINGS

Affordable Resins and Adhesives from Optimized Soybean Varieties, U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program Fact Sheet, May 2002.

Glasser, W. G.; Northey, R. A.; Schultz, T. P. (Eds.) Lignin: Historical, Biological, and Materials Perspectives, ACS Symposium Series 742, 1999.

Barger, P. Methanol to Olefins (MTO) and Beyond. Catalytic Science Series, 2002, 3(Zeo-lites for Cleaner Technologies), 239-260.

Bioprocessing, reaping the benefits of renewable resources, Chem. Week, February 11, 2004.

Current Situation and Future Prospects of EU Industry Using Renewable Raw Materials, European Renewable Resources & Materials Association (EERMA), Brussels, 2002.

Deamin, A. L., Small bugs, big business: the economic power of the microbe, Biotechnol. Adv., 2000, 18, 499-514.

Sasaki, M.; Fang, Z.; Fukushima, Y.; et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2000, 39, 2883-2890.

Eggersdorfer, M.; Meyer, J.; Eckes, P. Use of renewable resources for non-food materials, FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 1992, 103, 355-364.

EU FP6 Expression of Interest; http://eoi.cordis.lu/dsp_details.cfm?ID = 25887

Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks, U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program Fact Sheet, May 2001; oit.doe.gov/ agriculture

Dale, B. E. Greening the chemical industry: research and development priorities for bio-based industrial products, J Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 2003, 78, 1093-1103.

Industrial biotech and sustainable chemistry, Eur. Biotechnol. News, Vol. 3, No 1-2, 2004, pp. 28-29.

Industrial Biotechnology and Sustainable Chemistry, Royal Belgian Academy Council of Applied Sciences, January 2004.

Johnston, S. Emissions and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases from Agriculture and Food Manufacturing, S.C. Johnson Associates, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy, December 1999.

Industrial Bioproducts; Today and Tomorrow, U.S. Department of Energy, July 2003.

Matsumura, Y.; Minowa, T. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2004, 29, 701 -707.

Mangold, E. C.; Munradaz, M. A.; Quellette, R. P.; et al. Coal Liquification and Gasification Technologies, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arboa Michi., 1982.

NACHRICHTEN—Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Jahrg. 33 1/2001, pp. 59-70, A. Kruse, ITC.

NACHRICHTEN—Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Jahrg. 35 3/2003.

NSF Workshop on Catalysis for Biorenewables Conversion, April 13-14; www.egr.

msu.edu/apps / nsfworkshop OECD2001. The Application of Biotechnology to Industrial Sustainability; www.oecd.org/ sti/biotechnology

Okkerse, H; Van Bekkum, H. From fossil to green, Green Chem., 1999, 107-114. Gunstone, F. D.; Hamilton, R. J. (Eds.) Oleochemical Manufacture and Applications, CRC

Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2001. Steps Towards a Sustainable Development, A White Book for R&D of Energy-Efficient Technologies, Eberhard Jochem, March 2004, A Project of Novatlantis—Sustainability at the ETH-Domain (-CH). The Refining Process, Corn Refiners Association, Washington, D.C., August 2002. Trash to treasure, DOE Pulse, No 50, Feb. 28, 2000; ornl.gov/news/pulse Vision for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States, DOE, October 2002;

bioproducts-bioenergy.gov /board.html White Biotechnology: Gateway to a More Sustainable Future, 2003; www.europabio.org Wiedenroth, H. Zuckerrüben-Magazin, No. 32, September 2002.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • Berylla
    What is conclusion of green consumer behaviour?
    9 years ago
  • romilda loggia
    What is the general conclusion on green chemistry?
    9 years ago

Post a comment