[Hochchrohu u

Scheme 4.4 Insertion of CO2 into epoxides and cleavage of cyclic carbonates. Step 1. Catalyst: MgO, CaO. Step 2. Catalyst: zeolites exchanged with alkali and/or earth metal ions.

Some of the toxicological properties of DMC and phosgene and DMS are compared in Table 4.1.

TABLE 4.1 Comparison Between the Toxicological and Eco-Toxicological Properties of DMC, Phosgene, and DMS

Properties

DMC

Phosgene

DMS

Oral acute toxicity

LD50 13.8 g/kg

LD50 440 mg/kg

(rats)

Acute toxicity per

LD50 > 2.5 g/kg

contact (cavy)

LC50 16 mg/m3

Acute toxicity per

LC50 140 mg/L; (4 h)

LC50 1.5 mg/L

inhalation (rats)

(75 min)

(4 h)

Mutagenic properties

None

Mutagenic

Irritating properties

None

Corrosive

(rabbits, eyes, skin)

Biodegradability

>90% (28 days)

Rapid

Rapid

(OECD 301 C)

hydrolysis

hydrolysis

Acute toxicity (fish)

NOEC 1000 mg/L

LC50

(OECD 203)

10-100 mg/L (96 h)

Acute toxicity on

EC50 > 1000 mg/L

aerobial bacteria

of waste waters

(OECD 209)

Note: NOEC = Concentration that does not produce any effect.

Note: NOEC = Concentration that does not produce any effect.

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