Green Building

High Performance Building Characteristics

Let's get more specific about what we actually mean by the term green building or high-performance building. A green building is one that considers and then reduces its impact on the environment and human health. A green building uses considerably less energy and water than a conventional building, has fewer site impacts and generally higher levels of indoor air quality. It also accounts for some measure of the life-cycle impact of building materials, furniture and furnishings. These benefits...

The Triple Bottom Line

Most of the LEED Platinum projects I looked at for this book had several similar characteristics. Many were institutional, they all had committed owners and they all hired very experienced design and construction teams, although for almost every team it was their first LEED Platinum project. John Pfeifer of McGough Construction in Minnesota talks about the importance of the owners' commitment and of early planning in their LEED Platinum project Fig. 9.1 , a headquarters for Great River Energy...

Water Related Questions

Many people think that water will be the oil of the twenty-first century, the defining resource for civilization in many locations, energy use for water supply, and treatment accounts for more than 10 percent of building energy use. Therefore, questions about water are quite important to integrated building design. 1 Have we considered how to reduce, reuse, or recharge rainwater falling on the building Do we have the budget for dual-plumbing systems, so that rainwater can be reused in the...

Water Efficiency Questions

As we pointed out in the previous chapter, water conservation in buildings will undoubtedly assume even greater importance in the years ahead. As a result, during design development, we need to plan for a detailed systems approach to water efficiency. 1 Will ultra-water-conserving plumbing fixtures be acceptable to local officials (and possibly local plumbing unions) Can we reuse gray water or other nonpotable water generated in the building 2 Are there still other ways to reduce the water...

Water Efficiency

Considering the growing importance of water conservation in buildings, at this time we need to check that the project has taken all possible steps in specifying components that will help us meet stringent water efficiency goals. 1 Have we specified water-conserving fixtures and sensors sufficient to achieve our water conservation goals for the project Can we save 40 percent of water use against a baseline building, and qualify for a LEED Innovation point Are all proposed systems and fixtures...

Hard Bargain Farm Accokeek Maryland

Building Made Waste Materials

Let's take a look now at one project that has been designed to meet these standards, the Alice Ferguson Foundation's Hard Bargain Farm, an environmental education facility located in Maryland, near Washington, DC. This project won the Demonstrated Leadership award at the 2007 USGBC Greenbuild show, for unbuilt projects. The design concepts include the following strategies Cascadia Green Building Council, accessed April 29, 2008. 1 Maintaining a compact development footprint that takes advantage...

The LEED Rating Systems

Clinton Library Landscape

LEED rates all buildings across five major categories of concern, using key environmental attributes in each category. LEED collects and incorporates a wide variety of best practices across many disciplines including architecture, engineering, interior design, landscape architecture, and construction. It is a mixture of performance standards (e.g., save 20 percent of the energy use of a typical building) and prescriptive standards (e.g., use paints with less than 50 grams per liter of volatile...

The University of Pennsylvania Morris Arboretum Project

Drew University Aboretum

Robert Shemwell is an architect and principal of Overland Partners, San Antonio, with a string of high-performance, sustainable design projects to his credit. Called upon to design a new Horticulture and Education Center for the Morris Arboretum for the University of Pennsylvania, Shemwell's team took a unique approach to the design charrette process. As of March 2008, the project was in design development and aiming squarely at a LEED Platinum rating. If you're going to have an integrated...

Analysis Of A Complete Project

When the team analyzes credits or solutions, there are many synergies that should be reviewed. Many credits and solutions on LEED projects are directly related to other elements within the project. These opportunities provide the team to really accelerate the benefit curves for projects and reduce the life-cycle paybacks of many items. Cumulative cash flow EQ Credit 8.1 daylight and views Cumulative cash flow EQ Credit 8.1 daylight and views TABLE 8.9 INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CREDIT 8...

The Recipe For Success In Highperformance Projects

Throughout this book, I'll be showing you examples of high-performance projects, generally LEED Platinum level achievements and telling you how the participants worked together to achieve these outcomes. In this chapter, I'll show examples from several projects and draw some general conclusions from the experiences of architects, owners, engineers, and contractors. The bottom line it's very difficult to achieve high-level outcomes without some form of integrated design process. A leading...

Foreword About Global Warming

In the year 2000 when I first began working to introduce green building at Harvard, the most common perception I encountered was that green building was too expensive and that LEED was a costly point-chasing exercise with no value. Things reached their lowest point in 2001 when at one design team meeting, a faculty member acting as the project's client representative likened the belief that green building design could be cost effective to believing that there were elephants in the hallway. To...

The Integrated Design Team

The four key participants of every integrated design team are the building or project owner (or its designated representative), the architect, the mechanical engineer (including typically HVAC and plumbing) and the builder or general contractor. However, most successful high-performance projects have strong inputs from a variety of other participants, depending on the nature and complexity of the project, the specific sustainable goals sought, and local site and community conditions. The...

Site Water Management Questions

Water is emerging as a crucial design concern in many high-performance projects. An integrated design team will look at water in a much more holistic way, considering the entire water balance of the site. Some important questions include the following *Architectural Energy Corporation online , accessed April 2008. 1 How can stormwater be managed in the site design to reduce the impact of added impervious areas on storm sewers and waterways Are we considering the use of bioswales and other...

Financing Green Projects

Whether public or private, raising money for new and renovated projects is always an issue. For private developers, raising both debt and equity capital is typically the challenge. The rise of socially responsible property investing promises to reward those developers who build green. Investing in green buildings has begun to attract considerable attention as a form of responsible property investing RPI , a practice which is growing faster than overall investing. One expert, Professor Gary...

Platinum Project Profile

Toronto and Region Conservation Restoration Services Centre, Vaughan, Ontario Serving as office space for 36 occupants and housing a works garage, the Restoration Services Centre is an 11,700-square-foot, two-story facility. The Toronto and Region Conservation's Restoration Services Centre was designed to reduce energy costs by more than 66 percent compared to Canada's Model National Energy Code. The facility estimates a 57 percent reduction in energy consumption through a ground-source heat...

The Armory Portland Center Stage Portland Oregon

Occupied by the Portland Center Stage Theater Company, the Bob and Diana Gerding Theater at the Armory is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Originally built in 1889 for the Oregon National Guard, the building's 55,000-square-feet, 36 million renovation was completed in September 2006. Chilled beams are the primary cooling system (chilled water comes from a nearby district cooling plant), and high-efficiency gas-fired condensing boilers provide the building's heating needs. The...

Water Efficiency Credit Waterefficient Landscaping

Let's look at a very different example, addressing the concern for reducing potable water use for landscape irrigation. Two alternatives are to plant only native drought-tolerant species or to collect rainwater and use it for irrigation. In the second option, we add 80,000 to costs for collecting, treating, and distributing collected rainwater and gray-water to our irrigation system (Table 8.4). For the first option, we also save 15,000 per year in purchased water costs and 5000 in irrigation...

Water Efficiency Credit Water Use Reduction

Let's look at another water-related situation. In this case, we want to reduce water consumption in the building, a key issue identified in our visioning session, not only to save operating costs but also to create environmental benefit and to reduce the impact of development on urban infrastructure. Our options include specifying WATER EFFICIENCY CREDIT 1 WATER-EFFICIENT LANDSCAPING TABLE 8.5 WATER EFFICIENCY CREDIT 3 WATER USE REDUCTION TABLE 8.5 WATER EFFICIENCY CREDIT 3 WATER USE REDUCTION...

Genzyme Center Cambridge Massachusetts

Designed in the early 2000s by Behnisch Architekten of Stuttgart, Germany and finished in 2004, the 12-story, 344,000-square-feet Genzyme Center serves as office space for more than 900 Genzyme employees. Located in Cambridge's Kendall Square, the building is partially powered by renewable energy sources and controlled by a 2.3 million integrated building automation system (BAS). An open-air atrium serves a return air duct as well as light shaft and provides natural light to 75 percent of the...

Indoor Environmental Quality Questions

Stack Effect Building

Since the major business case benefits of green buildings derive from gains in productivity and health, it's vital to start considering these issues early in the design effort. 1 If the building must have a large floorplate, can we design an atrium that will enhance daylight penetration and natural ventilation into all occupied areas of the structure 2 Will the massing and orientation of the building support passive solar design and or natural ventilation and daylighting strategies Fig. 10.3 3...

The Aldo Leopold Legacy Center Baraboo Wisconsin

Earth Tube Cooling

In 2007, the Aldo Leopold Center became the highest-scoring LEED-NC Platinum project with 61 out of 69 possible points . Designed by Kubala Washatko Architects, this project serves as the Aldo Leopold Foundation's headquarters, with office and meeting spaces, an interpretive exhibit hall, archive, workshop, and three-season hall. The 12,000 square-foot complex cost 4 million. The facility uses 70 percent less energy than a standard building. A 198-panel, 39.6-kW photovoltaic system was designed...

LEED Rating System and EVA

The LEED rating system provides teams with a wonderful framework of green building focal points. Each credit's performance standards lead to Triple Bottom Line results. This chapter uses the LEED-NC rating system and examines several credits to analyze how this process applies to actual project decision making. The chapter in particular analyzes the following LEED credits Credit 6 Stormwater Design Credit 7.2 Heat Island Effect Roof Credit 1 Water Efficient Landscaping Credit 3 Water Use...

Programming

In the programming phase, the amount of space and various uses for the individual users of the building are specified in enough detail for the designers to begin to place them within the physical structure. At this time, it's useful to pay attention to the energy and demand natural ventilation implications of space utilization in the building. Programming also specifies adjacencies, uses that need to be put close together. These decisions are often dictated by a client's organizational...

Other Green Building Rating Systems

In addition to LEED, there are other commercial and institutional green building rating systems. One system in the United States is called Green Globes, a program of the Green Building Initiative. The Green Globes rating system is supposedly easier for project teams to use, but currently has less than 1 percent of the market for commercial and institutional buildings. However, Green Globes has its adherents, mostly because Green Building Initiative online www.thegbi.org. As of April 2007, GBI...

Energy Related Questions

In another context, the poet William Blake once wrote that Energy is an eternal delight and he that desires, but acts not, breeds Pestilence.' This is a good introduction to the overriding issue today in high-performance building design, which is to realize our desire to dramatically reduce energy use in building design, construction, and operations. The pestilence in this case would be global warming from a continuing growth of global carbon dioxide emissions, nearly half of which come from...

SWOT Analysis

Green Building Design Teams

My friend Nathan Good, an award-winning green architect in Salem, Oregon likes to use a SWOT analysis for his visioning sessions, using a diagram much like the one shown in Fig. 4.2. Borrowed from the world of the MBA school and from management FM Link online , accessed April 2008. Interview with Dan Heinfeld, LPA, Inc., February 2008. Figure 4.1 Left to right John Nystedt, Muscoe Martin, Colin Franklin, Tony Aiello, and Bert Westcott, design team members of the Morris Arboretum project....

The New York Times Building

Bruce Fowle New York Times Building

Bruce Fowle led the design team at FXFOWLE Architects for the design of the New York Times building Fig. 3.6 in New York working with Renzo Piano Building Workshop. Here's his story about how integrated design is practiced on a major new urban high-rise, with a strong collaboration between two very talented design firms. The New York Times Building was a collaborative effort from start to finish. While Renzo Piano was definitely the visionary for the project, both firms had equal roles in...

Integrated Design in Practice An Architects Experience

Now that we've heard from the engineers, let's take a look at how some leading architectural practitioners of integrated design approach this task. Stephen Kieran is a principal at Kieran Timberlake Associates in Philadelphia. His firm worked on the new *Geoff McDonnell, personal communication, April 26, 2008. 'Canada Green Building Council online , accessed April 2008. Sculpture Building and Gallery at Yale University. Kieran describes how they went about creating an integrated design...

Energy Issues

Wherein this phase we need to get very specific about energy-using systems and components, as well as building commissioning. 1 What is the final level of energy efficiency we are planning to achieve Is it possible to increase that level with more efficient equipment choices, without changing the overall design concept or appearance 2 Has the commissioning authority clearly reviewed all systems documents and do we have a clear idea of the owner's project requirements OPR and the basis of design...

Energy Design Questions

Energy-related issues in the design development stage are so important to the future success of the project that it s worth spending a little time to see how it s done in highperformance projects. In the previous chapter, we quoted Paul Stoller about his approach to schematic design for Yale University s Sculpture Building and Gallery. Let s pick up the story in design development 1. Once we were in the design development phase, we did the traditional whole building energy model. We built and...

An Architects Perspective

Bill Reed Hydrologist

Bill Reed writes about the importance of using charrettes to get people on the building team to change practice habits. In his view, the purpose of integrative design is to get people to change entrenched patterns that inhibit creativity, systemic thinking, and innovative designs. The most successful process we've employed to help people to change is this at the first goal-setting charrette, we map out a design process that shows how people are going to be integrating and communicating, when...

General Sustainable Design Questions

At this stage, it is often useful to take a step back and see where we are and whether earlier project goals need to be reexamined. We might also take a meeting or two to look at new opportunities that might have surfaced through the analytical efforts of the early design stages. 1 Has the project changed its green goals at this stage, and have we listed these in a way that all stakeholders are aware of them 2 What are our goals for using life-cycle costing and life-cycle assessment methods for...

Artists for Humanity Epi Center Boston Massachusetts

Epi Center Boston

The 23,500-square-feet, four-story Artists for Humanity Epi-Center houses art studios and gallery space in Boston. At 183 per square foot, the total project cost was 4.3 million. The energy cost for the building built to minimal ASHRAE Richard Mendelkorn, courtesy of Arrowstreet. Richard Mendelkorn, courtesy of Arrowstreet. 90.1-1999 energy standards would have been 3 per square foot 68,000 year , the estimated energy cost for the Epi-Center is 0.56 per square foot 12,732 year . A 45-kilowatt...

Integrated Value Assessment

We interviewed Michaella Wittmann, sustainable design director at HDR, a large architecture-engineering firm with nearly 7000 employees. Her firm has developed a tool called Integrated Value Assessment that is used to guide high-performance projects.' As this industry is moving forward in sophistication, we strongly feel that it's critically important to work with building owners at the beginning of projects and help them Interview with Ted van der Linden, DPR Construction, February 2008....

Standard Refrigeration Company San Juan Puerto Rico

This two-story, 19,500-square-foot building serves as the headquarters for the Standard Refrigeration Company. Compared to a building built to ASHRAE 90.11999 standards, Standard's building was designed save over 70 percent in electricity costs. An 85 percent efficient enthalpy wheel capable of handling 125 percent of the required outside air is a major component in the heat recovery system. Standard estimates that the electrical cost savings alone will pay for the cost of the new building in...

Philip Merrill Environmental Center Annapolis Maryland

The Philip Merrill Environmental Center in Annapolis, Maryland serves as the headquarters for the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Completed in December of 2000, the total project cost for the 32,000-square-feet, 2 story building was 7.5 million. The project was certified as the first LEED Platinum project in the United States, under the original USGBC pilot program for the LEED rating system. The Merrill Center uses approximately two-thirds less energy than a typical office. The building's east-west...

Energy And Atmosphere Credit Optimize Energy Performance

What about energy, which is typically the larger concern in most green building projects How do energy conservation and renewable energy options stack up in the EVA analysis Let's look at the first LEED credit for energy conservation and efficiency measures, worth from two to ten points. In the current LEED-NC 2.2 system, each new construction project must save at least 14 percent against the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 standard, to meet a prerequisite. Each building renovation must save at least 7...

Lewis Clark State Office Building Jefferson City Missouri

Lewis And Clark State Office Building

Constructed on the site of the former Jefferson City Correction Facility, the Lewis amp Clark State Office Building houses approximately 400 Missouri Department of Natural Resources employees. The cost for the 120,000 square-feet building was approximately 17 million. Designed to reduce energy consumption by 60 percent over a standard building, this project by BNIM Architects uses daylighting technologies, advanced electrical and lighting control systems, an efficient building envelope and...

Sustainable Sites Credit Heat Island Effect Roof

In mitigating the urban heat island effect, two obvious solutions are to design a LEED-compliant, high-emissive reflective roof or to install a green roof. Both alternatives have an up-front design and installation cost Table 8.3 , but the reflective roof achieves payback in the fifth year, while we have to wait until the ninth year to get a return on the green roof investment Fig. 8.2 . But, we may not want Cumulative cash flow SS Credit 8.2 Heat Island Effect. Paul Shahriari, Cumulative cash...

Site Design Questions

During design development, we need to complete our site design and to ensure that we are maximizing opportunities for installing sustainability features through the project site. 1 Does the internal circulation of the project site support pedestrian and bike access Have we designed separate entrances for bicycles, with power-assisted doors 2 Are there adequate places for bicycle storage in the building What about a location for an air compressor 3 Are there showers located for easy access to...

Energy And Atmosphere Credit Onsite Renewable Energy

Now let's take a look at installing renewable energy measures for our hypothetical project. In this case, we are almost always faced with considerably higher capital costs, relative to annual savings. However, an important mitigating factor may be the incentives available. Many states and utilities, along with the federal government, offer tax credits, and direct payments that can reduce the effective capital cost of such measures by 50 percent or more. Table 8.7 shows the EVA analysis for two...

Reduced Operating Costs

With the real price of oil likely to stay above 80 to 100 per barrel (in today's dollars) for the forseeable future,* natural gas prices at near-record levels, and peak-period (typically summer air-conditioning times) electricity prices rising steadily in many metropolitan areas, energy-efficient buildings make good business sense. Even in commercial triple-net leases (the most common type) in which the tenant pays all operating costs, landlords want to offer tenants the most economical space...

Verdesian New York New York

A 27-story residential building in New York City's Battery Park City, the Verdesian was completed in 2006. The 300,000-square-feet luxury apartment building includes 252 residences the total project cost was 75 million. A natural-gas-fired microturbine produces 70 kW of power 20 percent of the base load and recaptures enough heat to provide 100 percent of the occupants' hot water demand. The Verdesian was designed to be 40 percent more energy efficient than a standard building. A nearby sewage...

Materials Issues

The construction documents phase is our last chance to look once more at environmentally preferable purchasing policies for all the materials used in the building. 1 Is there an interest in making the building vinyl-free by specifying resilient flooring from other materials and finding alternatives to PVC pipe and conduit Is this an important consideration for any of our stakeholders 2 Have we specifically requested the use of salvaged or reclaimed building materials wherever possible Do these...

Integrated Design from the Engineers Perspective

Geoff McDonnell is a mechanical engineer in British Columbia. Here's how he describes the integrated design process, from an engineer's viewpoint.* You can see that the integrated design process can get fairly intricate in a hurry. The real key is that everyone is engaged early as a team, goes off and does their specialized work of analysis and design, then gets back together and tests their ideas against the larger *Sally Wilson, CBRE, Interview, February 2008. Personal communication, Geoff...

Tax Benefits And Incentives

More than 600 incentive programs for renewable energy and energy efficiency are offered by all levels of government.* Some states offer tax benefits for green buildings. Oregon and New York offer state tax credits. New York's tax credit allows builders who meet energy goals and use environmentally preferable materials to claim credits *Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, The Cost-Effectiveness of Commercial-Buildings Commissioning, 2004 online , accessed April 2008. This research reviewed...

High Performance on a Budget

A large developer-driven, build-to-suit project in Portland, Oregon, the Oregon Health & Science University's Center for Health and Healing, occupied in the fourth quarter of 2006, exposed flaws in the notion that dramatically higher levels of performance must always lead to significantly higher capital costs. The 412,000-square-feet, 16-story, 145 million project received a LEED Platinum rating early in 2007, the largest project in the world thus far to achieve this rating. The developer...

Integrated Design Can Reduce Costs

Often, the traditional design-bid-build process of project delivery works against the development of green buildings. In this process, there is often a sequential handoff from the architect to the building engineers to the contractor, so that there is a limited feedback loop arising from the engineering aspects of building operating costs and comfort considerations back to basic building design features. In a standard design process, for example, the mechanical engineer is often left out of the...

Indoor Environmental Quality

1 Does the HVAC design clearly separate areas of major chemical mixing or printing from other users in the building Can we use green cleaning measures to get rid of chemical mixing entirely or avoid the need for separate ventilation systems 2 Does the HVAC design provide for real-time monitoring of temperature and humidity in the building, with feedback to operational controls 3 Have we clearly specified external shading systems or high-performance glazing components to support our daylighting...

Occupancy and Operations

Too often overlooked in the daunting task of getting a project built is how it will be operated over its lifetime. Recent USGBC studies demonstrate that LEED-certified buildings are in fact getting about 30 percent average energy savings as predicted by computer models. However, the studies also found a wide variation in individual outcomes, suggesting that individual buildings operations are critical in achieving desired results.* Here are a few key questions you need to ask that will optimize...

High Performance Laboratory Project

Let's look at another challenging LEED Platinum project, a high-altitude 6300 feet 1910 meters laboratory, a joint venture project between Sierra Nevada College, the University of California, Davis, the Desert Research Institute, and the University of Nevada, Reno. The Tahoe Center for Environmental Sciences is a 45,000-square-feet lab and classroom building. Todd Lankenau was the principal in charge and project architect for the architectural firm, Collaborative Design Studio and Peter Rumsey...

Productivity Gains

Investment Green Buildings

In the service economy, productivity gains for healthier indoor spaces are worth anywhere from 1 to 5 percent of employee costs, or about 3.00 to 30.00 per square foot of leasable or usable space. This estimate uses average employee costs of 300 to 600 per square foot per year based on 60,000 average annual salary and benefits and 100 square feet to 200 square feet per person .5 With energy costs typically less than 3.00 per square foot per year, it appears that productivity gains from green...

Introduction to the Environmental Value Added Method

Traditional project delivery methods do not provide a very easy path toward the goal of successfully delivering a green building project. As you've learned from various examples presented earlier in this book, when evaluating the cost benefit components of a green building, the starting point on all projects needs to be a visioning session among project stakeholders. This session should be a focused meeting that allows the project owner or developer to develop a set of goals, that the project...

Bidding and Negotiation

Bidding and negotiation is an overlooked aspect of sustainable design projects during this phase, building owners, developers and design teams have to work with contractors to achieve overall sustainable objectives, within the context of the project budget and the ease of construction. Often, in a public bid situation more than a third of all LEED-NC projects are for public agencies , it's a good idea to devote a specific amount of time at pre-bid conferences to the LEED project requirements,...

Summary of Cost Influences

Chapter 6 discussed the many business case benefits of green buildings, and made the points that costs are real, occur first, and must be justified to various stakeholders. Benefits are generally long-term, and costs are immediate, so many people tend to shy away from anything that will add costs, no matter what the potential benefits. Table 7.2 shows some of the elements of green building design and construction decisions that may influence project cost. From this table of cost influencers,...

Energy Using Systems

We also have to get very specific about the energy-using and energy-supply systems for the project. This activity is especially important as projects move toward zero net energy goals. A good example is an enthalpy wheel Fig. 12.1 designed by Alfa Tech Cambridge Group of San Francisco, for the Ohlone College Newark Center for Sciences and Technology in Newark, California. Principal in charge Michael Lucas spoke about how this design element evolved. We presented a number of mechanical concepts....

Soft Costs For Green Building Projects

The 2004 GSA study mentioned earlier also looked at soft costs, costs for things that are not part of building construction. The study estimated soft costs for additional design and documentation services ranged from about 0.40 to 0.80 per square foot 0.2 to 0.4 for the courthouse and 0.35 to 0.70 per square foot 0.3 to 0.6 for the office building modernization project. One caution the added percentage of total cost may be higher for smaller projects. Therefore, each building team should look...

Fewer Higher Level Certifications

Another indicator of system difficulty is that the percentage of projects receiving basic Gold and Platinum ratings actually decreased from LEED-NC version 2.0 to version 2.1. (There are still too few data on LEED version 2.2 certifications to see if this trend is reversing.) This may mean two things one is that more teams are completing their first project and haven't built the skill level to get to the higher levels of certification however, it may also be that the costs of certification at...

Team Structure

One would expect that the more consultants there are on a team, the higher the design costs, since coordination will be an issue, as will the need to pay for expertise. Large numbers of consultants are typical on more complex projects such as performing arts centers, laboratories, and similarly complex buildings. Where an architect has an engineering function in house or where there are fewer consultants, there's an opportunity to save on design costs. However, a key element in team structure...

Feasibility Of Leed Measures

Another cost factor is the feasibility of LEED actions. For example, in most urban areas, recycling 75 percent of construction waste is virtually a no-cost item for the project. However, for projects in rural areas, there may be no construction waste recycling opportunities. To get the lost two points from some other LEED measures, for example, might add cost to an identical project, everything else held equal, if it wanted to qualify for the same certification level. The same would hold true...

Benefits That Build a Business Case

The business case for green development is based on a framework of benefits economic, financial, productivity, risk management, public relations and marketing, and funding.* Many people also describe these benefits in terms of the Triple Bottom Line, with such names as People, Planet, and Profits. The key issue here is that the benefits will vary by type of ownership, type of use, level of investment and similar drivers. It's very important, in my view, for building team members to become as...

General Construction Issues

During the CD phase, we have to write all the project specifications and get all the details on the drawings, so that the general contractor and various subcontractors can actually bid the project. These considerations naturally give rise to a number of important questions. 1 How will the project be bid, and how will this impact the inclusion of sustainability criteria in construction documents Will it be a negotiated bid or a competitive bid 2 Is there a CM GC process (or CM at risk) in place,...

Laurence S Rockefeller Preserve Grand Teton National Park Wyoming

Rockefeller Preserve in Grand Teton serves as a visitor center. Located near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, the 7500-square-feet building houses an interpretive center for the National Park Service. The building's design should reduce energy use by 84 percent and save 2000 annually. A ground-source heat pump and photovoltaic system is expected to provide 58 percent of the center's electricity. All of the wood used in construction was certified to FSC standards. The restrooms at the...

Conceptual and Process Questions

At this point in the project, the team should be comfortable enough with the integrated design process to begin answering and following questions. 1 To what degree do we want the building to be conspicuously green, with environmental strategies on display, as opposed to having them operate quietly, behind the scenes 2 Could the building educate others by making the green features more obvious, such as the use of photovoltaic solar panels or a green roof, or by opening up the internal workings...

Chartwell School Seaside California

A private organization that helps children overcome learning disabilities, the Chartwell School serves children aged 6 to 14. Located in the California coastal climate zone of Monterey Bay, the Chartwell School followed the protocols set by the Collaborative for High Performance Schools, in addition to the LEED Platinum requirements. A 30-kW photovoltaic system produces 53,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per year and offsets the production of 27 tons of CO2 annually. The project expects to...

Renewable Energy Questions

Ultimately we will want to make up a certain percentage of projected building energy use with onsite renewables, especially solar electrics. How we go about thinking through this opportunity can often determine whether it's realized in the project. 1 Are we allowing for future solar installations on the building in terms of designing roof surfaces and roof pitch Can we integrate photovoltaics into the south-facing shading of the building 2 Are there ways we can assure of providing at least 5 to...

Renewable Energy Systems

Now is the time to get serious about including renewable energy systems in the project. These questions focus our attention on the technical, economic, and financial feasibility of solar and wind power especially, as strong project components. 1 How might the use of photovoltaic systems impact daily energy supply patterns and potential economics of various energy use systems 2 Have we considered the use of building-integrated photovoltaics in the project Because we can integrate the PV systems...

The Willow School Art Barn Gladstone New Jersey

The Barn houses the school's middle grades, a cafeteria, the performing arts center and science center. The 13,000-square-feet facility cost 3.2 million. The building utilizes a wastewater management system where plants are grown hydro-ponically in sewage, which is treated and cleaned before it's returned to the ground. Harvested rainwater is used for toilet flushing, contributing to a 58 percent reduction in water use compared to a building built to code. A photovoltaic system provides 37...

Recruitment and Retention

One often overlooked aspect of green buildings is their effect on people's willingness to join or stay with an organization. It typically costs 50,000 to 150,000 to lose a good employee, and most organizations experience 10 to 20 percent turnover per year, some of it from people they really didn't want to lose. In some cases, people leave because of poor physical environments (as well as the Dilbert-parodied boss from hell). In a workforce of 200 people, turnover at this level implies 20 to 40...

Overcoming Barriers To Green Buildings

Some of the barriers to green building performance have little to do with cost and a lot to do with how engineers and architects have become accustomed to working with each other, much like brothers and sisters in the same family who want nothing to do with each other during adolescence, but who become good friends later in life. Dan Nall is senior vice president of Flack Kurtz, one of the leading building engineering firms in the United States. Here's his take on the situation. Engineers don't...

In Integrated Design

No discussion of integrated design would be complete without examining the contractor's role in the process, especially since many high-performance projects are design build or design assist projects in which the contractor is engaged right from the beginning, at the very least to provide pricing and constructability reviews as the design is evolving. It's hard to overstate the importance of the contractor's role in an integrated design process. After all, in most projects, they coordinate the...

Materials and Resources Questions

Each sustainable design program has to place some emphasis on appropriate selection of materials. As with lighting design, we might leave some of the details until the next phase, but some basic choices need to be made at this time. 1 Does our design provide adequate space for recycling bins on each floor Are we prepared to recycle, at a minimum, paper, cardboard, metal, glass, plastic, and batteries 2 How will the building recycling system be integrated with areas for storage and collection of...

To Green Buildings

Still, there are barriers to the widespread adoption of green building techniques, technologies, and systems, some of them related to real-life experience and the rest to perception in the building industry that green buildings still add extra cost. This is surprising because senior executives representing architectural engineering firms, consultants, developers, building owners, corporate owner-occupants, and educational institutions have held positive attitudes about the benefits and costs of...

Public Relations and Marketing

Many developers and building owners, both public sector and private companies, are finding considerable marketing and public relations benefits from creating LEED-certified green buildings. National media in the United States and Canada have effectively bought the proposition that LEED-certified buildings represent better buildings and a stronger commitment to sustainability by building owners and developers. LEED *World Clean Energy Awards online , nominee-detail project 41 , accessed April...

Tahoe Center for Environmental Sciences Incline Village Nevada

Completed in the fall of 2006, the Tahoe Center for Environmental Sciences houses classrooms and laboratories for programs that focus on understanding and protecting fragile alpine lakes. The three-story, 47,000-square-feet facility cost 25 million and is used by Sierra Nevada College, the University of California at Davis, the Desert Research Institute, and the University of Nevada, Reno. The facility uses 60 percent less energy and 30 percent less water than a comparable building. A variety...

Lighting Design Questions

Lighting design is so central to the aesthetics of building design and to energy use that each project must get it right during design development. Fixture and lamp selection may be delayed into the construction documents phase, but the core lighting design must be completed in an integrated fashion during design development. 1 Have we reduced our design fc levels to 30 fc for most common spaces Do we need to make special accommodations for visual comfort and for Boomers and older workers, such...

Increased Building Value

Increased annual energy savings also create higher building values. Imagine a building that saves 72,000 per year in energy costs versus a comparable building built to code (this savings might result from saving only 0.90 per year per square foot for an 80,000-square-foot building). At capitalization rates of 6 percent, typical today in commercial real estate, green building upgrades would add 1,200,000 ( 15 per square foot) to the value of the building. For a small upfront investment, an owner...

Payback Versus Return On Investment

Engineers (and to some extent, architects) are often unable to present economic information to higher-level decision-makers who prefer to speak the language of business, not design. A good example occurs in the world of energy savings. For example, suppose it cost 300,000 extra to secure annual energy savings of 100,000. This is a typical circumstance. An engineer might say that this measure has a 3-year payback ( 300,000 100,000), in terms of how long it takes to recover the initial investment...

The Christman Building Lansing Michigan

Lansing Christman

The Christman building is the first building to be certified at both LEED-CS Platinum and LEED-CI Platinum levels. A renovated 1928 landmark, the Christman Building is located on a former brownfield. Over 90 percent of the former walls, roof, floors and office furnishings were reused. The 12 million project is expected to save 40,000 a year in energy costs. The Christman Company, who provided construction management, historic preservation, LEED coordination and real estate development services...

Heifer International Little Rock Arkansas

Heifer's mission is to end hunger and poverty while caring for the earth. The organization's 94,000-square-feet, five-story headquarters building was completed in February 2006 at a cost of 17.4 million. Heifer expects to reduce energy consumption by 40 percent compared to a conventional building . Only 62 feet wide, the orientation and curved shape allow natural light to penetrate the building, reducing the need for artificial light. Rainwater from the permeable parking lot is collected in...

More Competitive Product

Speculative developers are realizing that green buildings can be more competitive in certain markets, if built at or near a conventional budget. This puts the onus on the design and construction team to figure out how to build LEED Silver or better buildings without adding significant costs. Green buildings with lower operating costs and better indoor environmental quality are more attractive to a growing group of corporate, public, and individual buyers. Green-ness will not soon replace known...

Getting Started with Environmental Value Added Analysis

Project teams should begin the green building process by identifying what Triple Bottom Line goals the project owner wants most. This ensures that the project team understands the owner's point of view for what will determine a successful project. Next the team should evaluate the various LEED credits and sustainable design solutions that support the owner's programmatic needs for the facility. Each item should be evaluated against the owners' EVA Log. The team should evaluate all impacts,...

Added Design Fees

Of course, building owners and developers don't want to pay higher design fees than they need to, but a standard approach is to select an architect for a high-performance project, then negotiate fees. This puts the owner at a disadvantage in fee negotiations, unless there are strong team-building activities and other methods early in design to reduce perceived risk by the architect. When selecting a starchitect star architect , the owner is committing to higher design fees to get a high-design...

Sustainable Design

The LEED green building rating system was introduced in March of 2000, so this book is being written after the system has been in place for 8 years.* Still, most architects and building owners are embarking on their first LEED project, while others have completed only a few. Having accessible expertise can often mean the difference between success and failure. This section addresses these issues with the following questions. 1 Have we made a firm decision to follow an integrated design process,...

Gross Costs and Net Costs

Because architects and engineers tend to think like design professionals and not owners, they often overlook the difference between gross costs and net costs in determining whether to accept or reject sustainable design measures, to the detriment of the project. For example, underfloor air distribution systems cost more, typically 4 to 7 per square foot, on a gross basis. However, by bringing power and data cabling directly to each work station, they eliminate the need for systems furniture...

The Davis Langdon Cost Studies

We gave an example earlier in this chapter of the Davis Langdon project cost study. In 2004, the firm's first LEED cost study offered strong evidence, based on 94 different building projects of vastly different types, that the most important determinant of project cost is not the level of LEED certification sought, but rather other more conventional issues such as the building program goals, type of construction, and the local construction economy. In this study, the authors concluded that...

New Trend The Integrated Office

It appears that some architects have decided that the best way to deliver integrated design is to have an integrated design team within the same office. While there are a large number of A E (architect engineer) and E A (engineer architect) offices among larger companies,* there appears to be a trend among a few firms to bring the key building designers all under one roof architects and interior designers, structural and mechanical engineers, and landscape architects. California's LPA, Inc. is...

What Needs to Happen

What are the obvious fixes for the situation where most LEED-registered projects don't get certified After all, if the USGBC's mission is to transform the building industry, the first step in completing the assignment is to make sure that those projects which start the journey actually get to the end of the road. To get a better handle on what can be done, we interviewed several experienced LEED project management consultants around the country. Here are some of the fixes they recommended 1...

Through Integrated Design

JERRY YUDELSON, PE, MS, MBA, LEED AP New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior...

Barriers to Green Building Growth

There remain barriers to the widespread adoption of green building techniques, technologies, and systems, some of them related to real-life experience and the rest to a lingering perception in the building industry that green buildings add extra costs. Senior executives representing architectural and engineering firms, consultants, developers, building owners, corporate owner-occupants, and educational institutions have positive attitudes about the benefits and costs of green construction,...

The Charrette Process

Most observers agree that the key to the charrette process first involves listening, then participating creatively. The key to charrette facilitation is to create different avenues for participation, so that the group benefits from everyone's contribution (Fig. 4.1). Dan Heinfeld, president of LPA, Inc., a leading architecture firm, says t Part of the charrette process lies in knowing that a good idea can come from anyplace. You have to be willing to accept that. It doesn't matter where the...

Leed For Core And Shell

First, LEED for Core and Shell is primarily used in the commercial speculative office market,* typically by large and fairly sophisticated developers second, by using a LEED pre-certification for marketing purposes, a developer is pretty much locked in by tenant expectations and lease provisions to producing a project certification at the end of the project, so one would expect the percentages to be higher. Because these projects tend to be quite a bit larger than the typical LEED-NC project...

Leed For Existing Buildings

LEED-EB has been one of the slower programs to get going, because it involves benchmarking facility management and operations practices, often requiring a company to spend 50,000 or more (for internal labor or consultants) for the LEED effort as well as a few hundred thousand dollars for the upgrades required for certification in most cases. To date, less than 10 percent of registered projects (counting both the pilot version and the version 2.0, which has been around since November 2004) have...

Getting Consistent Results

Let's take a look at how one owner, the University of Washington, tackles the issue of getting LEED certification on every project. Clara Simon was hired a few years ago as the first sustainability director for the Capital Projects Office. She relates her experience with LEED projects. Currently most of our LEED projects are state-funded projects. In the state of Washington there is a requirement that we need to achieve at least LEED Silver on all of our projects. Through early 2008, the...

Risk Management

Consider the possibility that green building certification could provide some measure of protection against future lawsuits through third-party verification of measures installed to protect indoor air quality, beyond just meeting code-required minimums. *Capital E Consultants online , accessed March 6, 2007. Gregory Kats, Financial Costs and Benefits of Green Buildings, online www.cap-e.com. (This section is not intended to give you legal advice please consult with your own attorney regarding...

Environmental Stewardship

Being a good neighbor is appropriate not just for building users, but for the larger community. Developers, large corporations, universities, schools, local governments, *Zach Mortice, Arboretum Visitor Center Stands Tall Against the Yardstick of a Tree, AIArchitect, Volume 15, February 15, 2008 online , accessed April 2008. and building owners and managers have long recognized the marketing and public relations benefits (including branding) of a demonstrated concern for the environment. Green...

Who Benefits

One of the biggest issues in green buildings is that the benefits are unequally distributed between those who pay for the project and those who benefit. For example, the benefits of green schools accrue most directly to the students, but it's the school district (and the taxpayers) who incur the cost. One can argue that the school district should look favorably toward green buildings that benefit students and teachers primarily, but that's not always the case districts are just as concerned...

Design Process And Scope

You can expect that a serious commitment to integrated design will add to design costs, because of additional meetings, design charrettes, and further studies and analyses during the design period. A typical all-day meeting is going to cost 20,000, if it involves many consultants, each billing 1200 to 2000 for the day. The least costly approach is to get everyone together just once, but not to leave the project venue until most key design decisions or directions are made. This approach is...

Controlling Costs in LEED Projects

Architect Peter Busby, leader of the sustainable design practice at Perkins+Will internationally, has designed a number of LEED-certified projects. His approach to controlling costs involves several key elements * *Canada Green Building Council online , accessed April 2008. Personal communication, Peter Busby, April 2008. Have a clear green design goal from the outset. Make sure the design team is completely integrated. Incorporate green elements in the design from the beginning. Have...

Greening Americas Schools

In 2006, Gregory Kats released a study of the costs and benefits of greening K-12 schools. The report, Greening America's Schools became one of the most important documents to justify green buildings for a very large market segment, K-12 schools.* In Chap. 6, we profiled the benefits of green schools outlined in that report. The report studied 30 green school projects in 10 states, completed from 2001 through 2006, and concluded that the average green cost premium was 1.7 percent, or about 3...