The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System

The Complete Grape Growing System developed by Danie Wium is an excellent guide with comprehensive details to assist the enthusiast grape grower in achieving a successful outcome for years. It's designed for the absolute newbie but also contains information even the most experienced grape grower can use to boost their own grape farm. This book is so well written that even a person with no knowledge at all about growing grapes can easily understand and follow the directions given. The drawings and photographs are excellent and make this a very user friendly book indeed. The written work is very easy to understand and is not complicated by a lot of scientific jargon. Danie is a professional grape grower and has put together a course to help people grow grapes at home. His course also includes a video series that shows professional tips all recorded on his own farm. I recommend anyone considering growing their own grapes to buy this e-book. Continue reading...

The Complete Grape Growing System Summary


4.7 stars out of 13 votes

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Author: Danie Wium
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My The Complete Grape Growing System Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Warmer weather A gift to wine drinkers

Recent research has shown that warming weather has boosted wine production. Just as vineyards and wineries thrived during the medieval warm period, the IPCC reports that the climate in northern Europe and in parts of the United States, such as California and Oregon, is much more favorable for growing grapes than it was previously. Before you get your hopes up, remember that climate change also means more extreme and varied weather, not just a nice warming touch. In the spring of 2006, Californians woke up to icicles hanging from their fruit trees. And Canadian ice wines, which are made from grapes that they first freeze on the vine, have been suffering from warmer temperatures.

Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of C

When looking strictly at North America, research by the IPCC in their 2007 report concluded Moderate climate change will probably increase the production of 'rain fed' agriculture. Estimates of the increases, however, have been lowered from what they once were. Over the next few decades, agricultural yields are expected to increase by 5 to 20 percent. Food production is expected to benefit some areas of the continent but decrease in others. The U.S. Great Plains Canadian prairies regions are expected to be some of the most vulnerable to climate change. They have also determined that the crops grown closest to climate thresholds (regions of abrupt change) such as California's wine grapes will suffer the most serious decreases in yields and quality. Crop production in the Southern Plains, Appalachia, the Corn Belt, and in the Delta States are expected to have a decrease in productivity of 16 to 21 percent. On the other hand, fruit crops in northern regions such as the Great Lakes and...

Impacts The So What Question

We have seen that climate change has occurred in the past simply because of natural variability, that is, variations in the climate brought about mostly by its internal workings and not principally through the influence of humans. It is interesting to note that many of these rather small variations have had rather large impacts on people and civilizations, especially locally and region-ally.2 For example, during the Medieval Warm Period, grapes flourished in England, and Greenland was settled by Europeans. These events were interrupted by the Little Ice Age. There is evidence that the cool period that seems to have begun about 4500 years ago adversely affected a number of civilizations. Before about 2300 B.C., a region of northern Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers called the Habur Plains was rich in agriculture. Sustained by this highly productive agricultural area, the cities of this region, where the written word, metalworking, and bureaucracy were probably born,...

Objections and Fears Concerning GM Crops

The supporters of transgenic crops say there is no difference between genetic modifications of plants by classical breeding methods to produce, for example, hybrid corn and using gene transfer to accomplish a similar result. If anything, they say, genetic engineering is more precise because it introduces just one or two genes into a plant. With conventional breeding, thousands of unknown genes are transferred in order to get the one with the desired trait. If altering genetic makeup is unnatural, they say, humans have been performing unnatural acts for thousands of years. You don't find poodles or seedless grapes in nature. With the assortment of genes now known, crop designers can simply choose the traits they want and impart them in one step instead of by trial and error. Simply replace a gene believed to be neutral for humans with one that is beneficial.

Successful Reporting Initiatives

Not everything Migros does is consistent with its declared responsibility as a sensible energy user. In the same communication campaign, Migros announced more transparency over CO2 emissions by launching a label for particularly low-emitting products. However, at the same time, their in-house magazine featured a large ad which offered a special discount on seedless grapes from South Africa This is just one example of a lack of consistency in overall policy and marketing efforts that ought not to hinder the efforts made by this particular company. Nobody's perfect, and everybody starts somewhere and has room for improvement.

The Cape Wind Project

Cape Wind is a proposal by Energy Management, Inc., a for-profit corporation, to build 130 wind turbines on Horseshoe Shoal, a shallow area in Nantucket Sound, slightly over 5 miles off the southern coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts.7 With average wind conditions the project, once built, would generate an average of 170 megawatts of electricity, with a maximum of 458 megawatts. The average production would be about 75 of the 258 mega-watts normally used by Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Each turbine would be on a tower 16 feet in diameter and 258 feet tall, with the tip of the blade, when vertical, extending 440 feet above the surface of the water. Cape Wind is the first major alternative energy proposal for Cape Cod, but not the only one. In May 2006 Patriot Renewables, LLC, proposed a 90 to 120 turbine wind farm to be sited in Buzzards Bay 8 and in June 2006 Oceana Energy Company announced that it is considering Vineyard Sound for the site of a tidal...

New society publishers

I want to thank all the people who contributed to the case studies in this book and to all those toiling in the green building vineyard. Especially I want to thank my research associate, Gretel Hakanson, who came to this project late and provided invaluable assistance in pulling together the case studies, photos and examples in this book. Thanks to Lynn Parker of Parker Designs, Beaverton, Oregon, for the graphic images created especially for this book. And a very special thanks to Kevin Hydes, former chair of the US Green Building Council and chair-elect of the World Green Building Council, for generously agreeing to write the foreword. I also want to

Locally Sourced Materials

About 20 years ago in Italy, the slow food movement began, with an emphasis on the sourcing of local foods with higher nutritional content and a less rushed way to eat, certainly as a reaction to the American fast-food movement sweeping the globe. In the US, many estimates have food traveling an average of 1,200 miles from farm or fishery to table. Think about this the next time you buy Alaska Copper River salmon in Arizona or grapes from Chile in midwinter in Chicago.

Brazilian Cane Ethanol A Policy Model

Ethanol is the most successful alternative fuel to date, though in surprising ways. Beginning in the 1970s, motivated by the Arab oil embargo and high oil prices, many small distilleries were built across Asia, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and the United States to convert starch and sugar materials into ethanol fuel. Everything from cassava and grapes to fruit cannery wastes and cheese whey were processed. Even excess low-quality wine in France was converted into ethanol fuel (and still is). Out of the vast investments made during those times, only two had staying power sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. Together they accounted for about 80 percent of all the ethanol fuel produced in the world in 2007.

Impact on food security

The state maintained its investment in urban agriculture for several reasons the high food demand in the cities, the relatively high free-market price of fresh vegetables, the need to make nutritional improvements to the basic Cuban diet, the possibility of selling direct to the consumer from the farm gate and thus overcoming postharvest losses and transport restrictions, and the potential for employment creation in urban areas (Wilson and Harris, 1996). The income from urban agriculture was crucial to supplementing the generally low state wages of the 1990s (Murphy, 1999). Ritchie (1998, p1) recounts one urban patio producer growing grapes on the roof of his building, along with vegetables and herbs in compost-filled tyres, which he sold to supplement his pension. He claimed 'It is the duty of Cubans to find ways to support themselves, as their contribution to sustaining the gains of the Revolution.'

Crops For The Alcohol Harvest

In the United States a strong young ethanol industry is rapidly growing based upon ethanol produced from corn. In Brazil sugarcane is already serving as the base for an ethanol fuel industry so large that it has made the country energy independent. But these are by no means the only crops that could serve as ethanol resources. Other attractive ethanol crops include sweet sorghum, sugar beets, fodder beets, wheat, barley, rye, rice, sorghum, Irish potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, taro, grapes, bananas, nipa palm, and sago palm. Grapes

The Broad Spectrum Revolution

Although it is not possible to identify a common thread in this changing diet, what can be said is that farther south, by the end of the LGM, the diet of hunter-gatherers had become surprisingly eclectic. The findings at Ohalo II (see Section 3.13) reveal plant remains from an impressive variety of species (Nadel & Werker,1999). Some 100 species have been identified from the remains of tens of thousands of seeds and fruits. These included acorns, almonds, figs, grapes, olives, pistachios and raspherries plus wild barley and wheat, the ripening times of which covered spring, summer and autumn. Animal bones showed that their prey was principally gazelle, fallow deer, fox and hare, plus many species of birds, and lots of fish.

Palm Trees And Banana Plants In English Gardens

Snowdrops Daffodils

A large number of cool weather plants are likely to suffer, according to this report, including snowdrops, crocuses, rhododendrons, ferns and mosses, along with bluebells and daffodils. It wouldn't be impossible to grow delphiniums, the Royal Horticultural Society said, but they would be more difficult to grow. The Society said gardeners could expect to see more palms, grapes, citrus fruit, figs and apricots, as well as colorful climbers like plumbago and bougainvillea. New pests from southern climates such as the rosemary beetle, berberis sawfly, and the lily beetle were now established in Britain, the society said (Woods, 2002, S-10). The Chelsea Flower Show in May 2002 strongly reflected the trend for Mediterranean-style plants suitable for dry conditions (Johnson, 2002, 5). Climate models for England projected warmer, drier summers and wetter winters. Landscape architects are faced with a paradox of finding plants that can survive hotter, drier summers while building landscapes...

Environmentalism As Moral Crusade

Data for the past 150 years do show a rise, but zoom out to a frame of analysis which covers the past millennium, and the 'stability' view of nature runs into perhaps even more serious difficulty. Not only does the post-1850 rise in mean global temperatures seem to be associated with the long, slow climb out of an unusually cold era (which caused widespread famine), but our best existing knowledge (scientific and historical) suggests that in the early Middle Ages the climate was substantially warmer than it is now. Not only does this 'Medieval Climate Optimum' followed by the 'Little Ice Age' suggest substantial natural variability, but these are also reports of enhanced agricultural productivity during the former. Much of Greenland was farmed and grapes were grown in Britain, suggesting that future warming might be at worst benign and at best beneficial, rather than the catastrophe predicted.

The Hockey Stick And Manic

The MCO posed a further problem for the 'warming as man-made catastrophe' scenario, because it indicated a markedly warmer period without anthropogenic CO2 emissions being implicated. Moreover, this was not a period of natural disasters and catastrophe, but an unusually fertile period history records that grapes were grown in northern England, and a fertile Greenland was colonized by Vikings. Much early history is now being reinterpreted with climatic change, world-wide, in mind (Fagan, 2001). The accepted science was troublesome for the IPCC consensus. The TAR conclusion about the 1990s and 1998 represented a repudiation of the established scientific consensus and hence elevated model claims over observation. Some critics even alleged scientific fraud (Courtney, 1999).

Genetically Modified Organisms

A similar transformation occurred with corn. Wild corn and the varieties cultivated by Native Americans tended to be smaller and less sweet than the corn on the cob we are used to today. In fact, all wild foods, including grains and cereals, are not very good sources of food for humans. Wild grain plants don't serve very well for making flour as compared to modern wheat or rye. Wine made from wild grapes is not very good. From the time that agriculture was invented, human beings have engaged in the continuous modification and improvement of food plants using an age-old technique called selective breeding. This ancient and critical art is not limited to the modification of plants. People have selectively bred cattle over many generations. All domestic animals differ from their wild cousins due to selective breeding and modification by humans. This includes dogs, cats, chickens, camels, sheep, goats, water buffalos, etc. Over generations, breeding has continuously modified and...

Agriculture and the Environment

Organic farming is the raising of crops and products using natural fertilizers and cultural and biological pest management. It excludes the use of synthetic chemicals in crop production and prohibits the use of antibiotics and hormones in livestock production. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) implemented national organic standards on organic production and processing in October 2002 and products meeting those standards are certified organic. USDA reports in 2002 that about i percent of oats, dry beans, tomatoes, grapes, and citrus were grown organically and about 2 percent of dry peas and lentils, s percent of apples, 4 percent of carrots, and 5 percent of lettuce was organic.

Natural Variability

Perhaps, a more detailed discussion of what is meant by natural variability is called for. Both historical data and the results of GCMs show that both the globally averaged temperatures and regional and local temperatures will have their ups and downs. Historical changes that have occurred both recently and during the past thousand years bear out the fact that sizeable changes in the climate might occur naturally in the climate system. This is what climatologists call natural variability. For example, there was a relatively cool period that occurred between about 4500 and 2500 years ago, ending at about the time of the dawn of the Roman Empire.4 The decline and fall of the empire and the beginning of the Dark Ages about A.D. 500 to 1000 saw a return to colder climates. After this period was a relatively warm period called the Medieval Optimum, which lasted from about A.D. 1100 to 1300 in Europe but apparently not in the northern hemisphere as a whole as can easily be seen in Figure...


Evidence of the likely impacts was initially from glass-house experiments only (Parry, 1990), which substantially alter the growing environment raising questions as to their applicability under actual field conditions. Open-top chambers and some enclosed field experiments have since been conducted, but also alter the growing environment. Variations in experimental conditions are known to cause a wide range of responses. Meanwhile, few experiments have been conducted on perennials (tree fruits, coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, grapes, many forage and pasture crops and other small fruits), especially the woody species (Reilly, 1996 431).

Energy Sources

Lest we heap too much scorn on Republicans, Democrats are not without faults in the alternative-energy debate. For example, wind energy is particularly strong off the Massachusetts coast (figure 5.7), and Cape Wind Associates has proposed erecting a wind farm consisting of 130 turbines that will rise 426 feet above the water 6 miles off the coast of Cape Cod. At that distance the turbines will be visible from beaches along Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket, where some of the nation's wealthiest liberals own valuable property. The wind farm would provide three-quarters of the Cape's electricity, pollution-free. The Kennedy family, normally strong proponents of alternative energy but owners of a major compound in the area, has been leading the charge against the proposed wind farm. They have equated it with erecting the turbines in the Grand Canyon. NIMBY is a disease that apparently can affect even those who push most strongly for alternative sources of energy. The rubber is...

Pinot Noir Power

At David Nemarnik's Alloro Vineyard in Sherwood, southwest of Portland, Mount Hood can also be seen in the distance on a clear day. It punctuates the view to the northeast that starts with neat rows of Pinot Noir grapevines on trellises, continues with open fields and meadows, and then abruptly changes with the rooftops of the subdivisions of Tigard. Nemarnik's 22 hillside acres are just outside the Portland urban growth boundary, but, in contrast to Abrams and Benton, he likes it that way. If the houses get any closer to his vineyard, there won't be a time of day he can use his gopher blaster, let alone the bird cannons. The integrity of grapevine roots is critical in the winemaking business gophers wreak havoc underground. To encourage the critters to abandon their tunnels, Nemarnik uses a propane-and-oxygen mixture shot from a hose, which makes the sound of a billowy shotgun blast. Making noise is the sole idea behind the bird cannons the loud blanks thwart avian thievery, which,...

Whinash Wind Farm

Walter Garms Kinetic

The International Wildlife Coalition, the Ocean Conservancy, The Humane Society, and The Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound, are unhappy. The folks on Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island are not happy. Nimby, not in my backyard, has created an unlikely coalition of environmentalists and bent-out-of-shape residents from Cape Cod's Hyannis Port, all the way to Buzzards Bay. For years the Sierra Club and Greenpeace promoted wind power as a way to reduce or control the use of fossil fuels. But when there was a proposal to locate a wind farm offshore in Nantucket Sound, between ferry lanes to Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, that was just too much, even for environmentalists dead set against coal and oil and global warming 7 . War has been declared between Cape Wind Associates of Boston, who want to install a parcel of 130 towering turbines, soaring to 420 feet about the sea, 6 miles out in the middle of Nantucket Sound, covering a 24-square-mile area, while yet another company has...

Liquid Biofuels

Brazil Automobile Production Total

Produced by fermentation of annually grown crops (sugar cane, corn, grapes, etc.). In this process, starch or carbohydrates (sugars) are decomposed by microorganisms to produce ethanol. Ethanol can be produced from a wide variety of sugar or starch crops, including sugar beet and sugar cane and their byproducts, potatoes and corn surplus. In Russia after the Bolshevik revolution, Lenin proposed the use of agricultural alcohol to produce industrial fuels and products. This diversion amounted to the use of Russian people's beloved source of vodka, however, the plan was soon abandoned. During World War II in Europe, blends of ethanol with gasoline were used, but only anhydrous ethanol is miscible, with gasoline phase separation otherwise causing stalling of the engines. Ethanol has been promoted and used more recently extensively in Brazil and the United States as a response to the OPEC oil embargoes and rising gasoline prices (but also to subsidize farmers). Beginning in that period,...

Making Alcohol Fuel

Ethanol is the kind of alcohol that we drink in alcoholic beverages. It has been made since prehistoric times by using microorganisms to ferment the sugar (and starch, which is a biological precursor to sugar) content of plant material. All food crops contain sugar and starch, which are the primary sources of their caloric value. Acting on this insight, humans over the millennia have made alcohol by fermenting grapes, honey, wheat, barley, rice, sugar, molasses, apples, pears, potatoes, corn, and many other crops, each into its own characteristic drink. Basically, if it's a plant, and you can eat it, you can make booze out of it. The sweeter it is, the more ethanol you will get. This is why

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