Gold Prospecting and Mining

Scrap Gold Business Model

Have you wanted to work a job that does not require you to come in at certain hours just to allow you to keep it? Would you rather make more money doing something that is more interesting than spending a lot of time in a cubicle? This is the solution for you: become an expert in scrap gold! Gold is historically one of the most stable investments, so your market is not going under any time soon! You will learn how to start dealing in scrap gold and how to start your business for less than $50! You will also learn how to test the gold that you come across so that you don't get ripped off. You will learn how to trade peoples gold for cash, and how to find gold in the first place. Start making your own business that deals in the most secure investment of all time! More here...

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The Multicultural Character of the Gold Rush

Most of the development initially associated with gold mining occurred in various towns in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains during the second half of the nineteenth century. Molten gold, formed in the Sierras, Rockies, and Cascades during the ancient uplifting of the mountains, poured into fissures, designated as veins. This organic term, coming from the idea of veins within the ancient earth mother, was rooted in an older concept that both gold and the earth were alive. Veins that were close together formed a lode, or a set of veins that could be worked together. The idea of a mother lode was based on the belief that several veins within the earth rose to the surface, where they could be tapped. Placers were places where gold had eroded into small particles through the action of water. It could be recov ered by panning, or washing the heavier gold nuggets out of the gravel by rotating a flat-bottomed pan. The area known as the Mother Lode in the western Sierra foothills was noted...

The Search for Neutrinos

In recent years, a good deal of research work on solar physics has been devoted to finding evidence for the presence of neutrinos in the solar beam arriving on earth, because it was believed that a positive finding would constitute a direct proof of the theory of nuclear fusion in the sun as the source of its energy. Attempts have been made by astrophysicists in several countries in this direction. After decades of search, the first positive evidence was reported from the United States of America where Raymond Davies, Jr., of the Brookhaven National Laboratory who later became a research professor in the University of Pennsylvania, succeeded in capturing solar neutrinos in a tank deep underground in a South Dakota mine. He started his research work in 1961 by placing a large tank of perchloroethylene - commonly used as a drycleaning fluid - in a deep mine 2300 ft underground in the State of Ohio. With promising results from this work, he later installed a 100.000-gallon tank filled...

The Deep Sea In Over Our Heads

Until recently, the deep sea was thought to be a barren biological desert, devoid of life save for a few hardy species. We now know that the cold, pressurized waters of the deep sea are home to an almost unbelievable variety of clams, worms, amphipods, and other creatures. We do not even know what we don't know about the deep sea. As a measure of the profound depth of our ignorance, consider that just in the past few years hydrothermal vents full of gold were discovered, lying right on the ocean's bottom within the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of certain countries. Because the EEZs are exempt from the stringent international regulations of the International Seabed Authority (set up under the Law of the Sea), these new discoveries may set off a gold rush. This could in turn destroy one of the most bizarre and fascinating ecosystems on the planet the only one that doesn't run off solar energy. Mining companies are already signing underwater leases with developing countries hungry for...

Did We Domesticate Dogsordiddogs

DOMESTICATE US If we were looking for an analogue for how modern Europeans might fare in conditions akin to northern Europe during the ice age, the Klondike gold rush comes to mind. Thousands of people (mainly men) set off from the comfort of the cities of temperate latitudes with a limited set of possessions to find their fortunes in the frozen north. A colourful evocation of these times is found in Jack London's books, such as White Fang and The Call of the Wild. The most striking aspect of many of these tales is how dogs and wolves are depicted as being much better equipped than men to survive the rigours of the savage Yukon winters. In a fictional way it throws considerable light on the questions raised in Chapter 3 about the genetic evidence that we may have had a symbiotic relationship with dogs during the ice

California Native Peoples and the Advent of Europeans

Prior to the Gold Rush, the native peoples of California lived within an organic economy based on relations among Indians and fish, deer, bear, acorns, and other living things. Although California's Mediterranean climate was highly suited to agriculture, California natives west of the Sierras remained hunters, gatherers, and fishers, many living in the densely settled Central Valley. East of the Sierras, the Paiute practiced irrigated horticulture, but the corn, beans, and squash complex of the American Southwest was not established west of the mountains.

What Is Wealth Anyhow

To a band of cave-dwelling proto-humans in the ice age, wealth must have consisted mainly of four or five survival necessities (1) the cave itself (or other shelter), (2) a water supply, (3) a means of hunting or gathering edibles and (4) a fire and a fuel supply. These fundamental elements of wealth were not readily exchangeable, except by capture of territory. Other useful and portable objects, such as clothing (skins), smoked meats or other preserved foods, clay pots and crude tools or weapons would have been only slightly less valuable, but more easily obtainable by barter. Proto-money, consisting of scarce, difficult to make or fake, easily recognizable, intrinsically desirable and portable objects, from cowrie shells to blocks of salt, or gold nuggets, began to play a role in trade at some point in human history.

Pollution by chemicals or nuclear radiation

Ton of final product, eventually to become garbage in many cases, is preceded by five tons of waste generated during manufacturing, and by twenty tons of it during initial resource extraction. Depletion of the mines can cause tremendous growth both in the energy used for extraction and in the waste 'tailings' D.H. Meadows, D.L.Meadows and J.Randers note that 'as the average grade of copper ore mined in Butte, Montana, fell from 30 per cent to 0.5 per cent the tailings produced per ton of copper rose from 3 tons to 200 tons'.67 Lead now enters the environment at eighteen times the natural rate cadmium at five times the natural rate mercury, nickel, arsenic, vanadium at twice the natural rate. Two thousand tons of mercury have joined the Amazon's ecosystems, just from gold prospecting.

European Settlement of the Great Plains

The main settlement of the Great Plains occurred after the 1840 migrations to Oregon and the 1849 Gold Rush to California. Environmental historian William Cronon has interpreted the history of the Great Plains in terms of narrative. The grand narrative of America, Cronon argues, is a story of progress. The frontier narrative depicts that formative story and, as such, is the master narrative of American culture. A hostile environment, initially conceptualized as a Great American desert, was gradually brought under control and transformed into a garden, making the Great Plains a Garden of the World. That transition in perception occurred as people increasingly settled the Plains and gained control over nature. Two formative accounts

Behindthescenes Plot To Get Iraqi Oil Supply

Shortly before the 2003 war, industry experts described Iraq as a future gold rush, where the companies would battle to gain control of key reserves. According to James Paul, at that time a well-informed diplomat at the U.N. commented bluntly Exxon wants Majnoun and they are determined to get it. And a longtime industry observer said There is not an oil company in the world that doesn't have its eye on Iraq. The future of major oil companies might at some point have to depend, to a large extent, on their control of Iraqi oil reserves.

Warehouses with toxic wastage

There is a large waste warehouse containing cyanide from gold mining (Kum-Tor area, 4,100 m above sea level, warehouse stores a total volume 100 million cubic meters, in an ice-gravel dump), see Fig. 1 (Torgoev et al., 2003). The Petrov-Davidov Glacier is situated above the dump and can destroy it, in which case all the waste will flow down to the River Ara-bel and on to the Narin River (length 807 km, average discharge 432 m3 s) (Torgoev et al., 2003). Such an event would endanger 80,000 riverside residents.

Ranching in South Park

The first ranches in South Park were established soon after the first gold mining strikes in the 1850s. Fairplay became as much a ranching center as a mining center. The excellent grazing land in South Park is one of the primary reasons that cattle ranching became the most stable industry in the area. Hay grown in this area has been shipped as far away as Kentucky and even to England as feed for racehorses. The right of landowners having no access to streams to appropriate and divert water to their land also played an important part in the development of this industry. In the 1890s the U.S. government established forest reserves and assessed fees for grazing cattle on these reserves. Following the creation of the Forest Service in 1905, these reserves became national forests (Simmons, 1966). Today fee-grazing continues on Colorado State and Bureau of Land Management acreage as well as on forest service lands. Since the 1950s, water rights have been aggressively pursued by east-slope...

US scrap tire disposition

Scrap Tire Disposition

Discussed in a July 2001 article by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) titled ''Obsolete Computers, Gold Mine or High-Tech Trash '' The article notes that a typical personal computer (PC) becomes obsolete in 2-5 years. The USGS estimates that up to twenty million PCs per year become obsolete in the United States. Studies performed in the late 1990s indicated that consumers seldom discarded old computers. Many were kept as a back-up or given away. However, disposal is expected to become more common as new computer sales increase. source Figure 2. A Generalized Materials Flow Diagram Illustrating What Happens to Obsolete PCs and Their Components, in Obsolete Computers, Gold Mine, or High-Tech Trash Resource Recovery from Recycling, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, July 2001, http fs fs060-01 fs060-01.pdf (accessed August 4, 2005) source Figure 2. A Generalized Materials Flow Diagram Illustrating What Happens to Obsolete PCs and Their...

Birds Roost Before A Storm

Similar behavioral changes have been observed among other animals. During the Klondike gold rush, sled dogs were known for digging their sleeping holes in the snow on the sides of trees that later faced away from the wind during a blizzard. Some ranchers say they can tell whether the next day will be fair or foul, based on the behavior of their cattle. In the Florida Keys, some natives say they can tell when a hurricane looms, because the roaches get restless.

Hadjamberdiev V Shablovsky and V Ponomarev

There are two extremely dangerous warehouse or tailings areas in TienShan. The first one is due to cyanide contained in waste from gold mining in the Kum-Tor area, 4,100 above sea level. The Petrov-Davidov Glacier is situated above the dump and can destroy it, and the waste flow down to the River Ara-bel and thence down to the Narin River. Such an event would be dangerous for 80,000 riverside residents. The other area, with the uranium storehouses, is situated in the Mailuu-Suu River region. There are tailings, number 3 and 7, which are especially unstable, and in danger of flowing down to the town and the River Mailuu-Suu. All the dangerous processes mentioned are sensitive to global warming glaciers and snow melting, increases in river discharges, etc.

Ethanol The Right Way And The Wrong

Greenhouse gas emissions from ethanol (biofuel) are lower than for gasoline, but not by much. The difference varies by the source for corn-based ethanol, it is usually 10 to 20 percent. Regardless, by 2007, driven by a 51-cent-a-gallon federal subsidy, ethanol fever had struck Capitol Hill. One bill under consideration required the use of biofuels (partially corn-based, with others from other plants) to climb to 36 billion gallons by 2022, more than six times the capacity of the nation's 115 ethanol refineries that were presently operating. There's almost a gold rush in this sector at the moment, said Philip R. Sharp, who served in the House of Representatives for 20 years and in 2007 was a lobbyist as president of Resources for the Future (Mufson, 2007, D-1).

Long and Shortterm Impacts of Mining in the Environment

Mining may also have effects that can be short-term, depending on their severity, such as distortion to the surrounding topography or removal of vegetation. In many cases, these effects may be minimized or even prevented by means of a comprehensive mining plan that includes a reclamation and remediation stage. For example, in 1999 the Ruby Hill Mine, an open-pit gold mine located near Eureka, Nevada, received an Excellence in Mine Reclamation Award, which is granted jointly by various state and federal mining and environmental bodies. Since its inception, the mine has exhibited outstanding innovation in its design, mitigation, and reclamation, all of which is the basis of the award. One of the techniques employed by the mine is concurrent reclamation practice. Since initial exploration, disturbed areas are continuously relegated to facilitate erosion control and provide improved esthetical value. In addition, one mitigation measure that was cited is the effort to offset potential...

Of Burros Bears and Dogs

Schedel Van Een Alleseter Vos

According to Bair (1959), Prunes (1867-1930) was owned by Rupert Sherwood and packed so long for the gold mines in the Alma-Fairplay district that few could remember when he had started. Prospectors would send him down the mountain with a note tied to his saddle he would return with his packs filled with food and supplies for the miners. His reward was a lump of brown sugar and pancakes. He witnessed Indian raids, lynchings, the coming of the railroads, and the start of the cattle ranching business. After many years of service, Rupert retired Prunes he grew fat on handouts from the townspeople. After barely surviving a severe blizzard, Prunes was mercifully released from his life in the mining community. When Sherwood died in 1931, his ashes were buried with Prunes' remains. In 1943 a radio broadcast of Death Valley Days featured the heroic Prunes.

Historical Overview Topics and Themes

Western Frontiers The Settlement of California and the Great Plains, 1820-1930 80 Westward Expansion and the Settlement of California 80 California Native Peoples and the Advent of Europeans 81 The Multicultural Character of the Gold Rush 82 Types of Gold Mining 85 Environmental Effects of Hydraulic Mining 86 Environmental Change in the Sierras 88 European Settlement of the Great Plains 89 The Rancher's Frontier 91 The Farmer's Frontier 93 Narratives of Blacks and Women 94 The Dust Bowl of the 1930s 96 Conclusion 98

Gold And Silver Prospecting And Mining

Most of the gold found in South Park came from mineral veins and lodes high in the adjacent mountains and in the thick gravels in the stream valleys. Pleistocene glaciers eroded these mountain deposits, and the streams carried the gold far into the valley, where flakes and nuggets would later attract the attention of prospectors. Gold was reported from South Park as early as 1806, when James Purcell (called Pursley by Pike) told Zebulon Pike of his findings (Simmons, 1966), and nuggets were picked up by trappers during the 1830s and 1840s. Gold mining in South Park did not flourish, however, until the late 1850s, after which it continued into the early 1870s. When hydraulic mining replaced the uneconomical one-man placers, Chinese workers were brought into South Park as cheap labor. In the 1860s the population of the camps began to dwindle, and some were nearly abandoned. Silver gradually brought the area back to life in the early 1870s, and this boom lasted until the Sherman Act of...

William Knox DArcy

William Knox D'Arcy was the founder of the first foreign oil company in the Middle East. Educated at Westminster in London, he moved to Australia in 1866, where he founded the Mount Morgan Gold Mining Company. He returned to England with his family in 1889. In 1900, he began financing oil exploration expeditions to Persia (modern-day Iraq), where oil was struck by his ventures in 1908. He founded the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) in 1909 and began exporting oil resources from Persia. D'Arcy's role in oil development in the Middle East is notable for two reasons. First, his ventures were the first oil exploitation operations that occurred in the most oil-rich region in the world. Second, he founded the world's largest oil company. APOC later became British Petroleum (BP), an oil giant that continues to develop petroleum resources and operations in countries worldwide and whose record profits in 2006 made it the largest global oil company as measured by production. D'Arcy became a...

Air Toxics

Figure 2.13 shows the primary sources of mercury emissions to air in the United States for 1990, 1996, and 1999. Emissions from medical waste incinerators and municipal waste combustors declined significantly over this time period. Emissions from miscellaneous sources, such as gold mines and industrial operations, experienced modest decreases. This leaves coal-fired boilers at electric utility plants as the largest single source of mercury emissions.


It is standard fare to note that several thousand years ago the ancient Greek historian Plutarch called attention to the eternal fires of the hydrocarbon fields of Baba Gurgur near Kirkuk in what is now northern Iraq.1 After the first major drilling of oil in the Baku area of Azerbaijan in the 1870s,2 and with the intense interest of the world's major naval powers at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries in moving from coal to oil as their fuel of choice, the gaze of acquisition was cast toward the Middle East by both oil companies and the governments of their home countries.3 By 1901, the British entrepreneur William Knox D'Arcy, who made his fortune in the Australian gold fields, had successfully landed an oil and gas concession from what is now Iran.4 After fruitless prospecting efforts that drained his resources, D'Arcy in 1905 enlisted the assistance of Glasgow-based Burmah Oil Company, and in 1908 substantially reduced his own debilitating...

Resource Wars

These examples represent a tip of the iceberg of rebellions sparked by environmentally destructive exploitation of mineral resources by multinational corporations. Too often, the rebellions have been brutally put down by the host country's government at the instigation of the exploiting corporation. Among recent such upheavals have been protests over Royal Dutch Shell's environmental destruction in the Ogoni region of Nigeria disturbances in West Irian over damage, despoliation, and displacement of local people by the huge open-pit copper and gold mine of Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold and the Occidental Petroleum Corporation's environmental impacts and resultant battles with indigenous groups in Colombia.52 Such conflicts seem likely only to increase as demand by the affluent for resources, from diamonds, copper, and gold to oil and gas, drives suppliers to seek and extract them in places not already heavily exploited, heedless of the costs to local citizens. Governments of poor...

Water Erosion

In scour gullies, rill runoff water takes away soil particles through sluicing. Sluicing is the process used by Gold Rush miners of the mid-1800s. They built long, thin, wooden boxes through which running water poured. River current was often directed through sluices so that gold-laden gravel could be sieved faster than using the time-consuming panning method. The moving water washed lighter soil particles away from the heavier gold nuggets (with luck ). The eroded soil was usually the size of fine-to-medium sand. Scour gullies are often found in low, rolling hills. 7. The process that Gold Rush miners of the mid-1800s used to separate rock samples is called

Coalbed Methane

There are also many mines with successful reclamation plans. For example, the Ruby Hill Mine, which is an open pit gold mine in Eureka, Nevada, won a state award in 1999 for concurrent reclamation practices, such as using revegetation and employing mitigation measures to offset potential impacts to local wildlife.

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