Theories on Globalization Modernization versus Recolonization

Theories on globalization focus either on its modernizing ideology or its re-colonization ideology. Much has been written on globalization, and without attempting a comprehensive literature review, one could nonetheless submit that four different although possibly complementary theories on globalization exist. World system theory [2] sees globalization as a process through which capitalism spreads throughout the world, more rapidly with the end of the Cold War. Although the origin of globalization can be traced back to European political economy thinking, there is no political core and globalization flourishes through a number of different political systems in different parts of the world. Those countries that have highly skilled labor and capital intensive production are in the center and other countries are in the periphery of the system.

World polity theory focuses on how globalization leads to a sharing of a common culture with its roots in Christianity. This common culture creates rules and models within which society functions. Rules are not dictated by a body or country, but emerge from the globally shared values of sovereign states and the system that they set up. Over time, states adopt similar norms, constitutions, principles, rules, and structures, and increasingly civil society and non-state actors play a role in defining these rules and structures [3,4].

World culture theory [5] puts emphasis on global interaction and the development of global consciousness. Globalization implies changes for states, the system of states, individuals and humankind and goes hand-inhand with modernity. In this system each unit shapes itself relative to others (relativization), each unit emulates the characteristics of other cultures that it respects (emulation), each interprets the norms in distinctively local and cultural styles (globalization), universalism and particularism are closely related (interpenetration), and the elements of globalization are contested and debated in different contexts.

At the other end of the world, from the school of the Third World Approaches to International Law, B.S. Chimni [6], argues that globalization is not an autonomous process but a process that is orchestrated and promoted by the Western countries; that a combination of institutional constraints and freedoms is created to facilitate eleven types of influences: the internationalization of democracy, property rights, conditions for the exchange of commodities, internationalization of currencies, human rights, labor market deregulation, digital capitalism, the proliferation of tribunals, the participation of non-state actors, the tendency to gradually stop differentiating between rich and poor countries, and the reconstitution of the relationship between states and the UN with the entry of the corporate sector. Chimni puts forward the notion that globalization is perhaps in many ways a new type of colonization.

The theories focus on different aspects of the same phenomenon and highlight different elements. But while for some the process of globalization is a conscious project that is pushed by key actors who are ideologically motivated, for others globalization is an inevitable process that moves in mysterious ways. Each theory in its own way contributes to understanding globalization, and these are not necessarily contradictory. One can conclude that a key element, although not the only element, of globalization is the capitalist ideology that finds its roots in Western culture. Another element of globalization is the rise of common values which may be either linked to capitalist ideology or to the need for the rule of law and the respect for human rights, or both. This, too, finds its links in Western culture. The third element of globalization is that although there is a common surface flow of ideals and norms, this dominant flow will give rise to opposition and the development of alternative schools of thought, and further that when these ideas, values, norms and rules are interpreted in a local context, they will get a truly local flavor and the outcomes may not always be those that were predicted in advance.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

Always wanted to get a better deal but didn't have the needed negotiation skills? Here are some of the best negotiation theories. The ability to negotiate is a skill which everyone should have. With the ability to negotiate you can take charge of your life, your finances and your destiny. If you feel that others are simply born with the skill to negotiate, you should know that everyone can learn this wonderful skill.

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