Table of Contents

1 Globalization and the Environment: an Introduction 1

Khi V. Thai, Dianne Rahm, and Jerrell D. Coggburn 1.1: Overview 1

1.1.1: The Conceptual Meaning of Globalization 2 1.1.2: Perspectives on Sustainable Economic Growth 2 1.1.3: Globalization, the Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth 2 1.1.3.1: Globalization and Sustainable Economic Growth 3 1.1.3.2: Globalization and a Sustainable Environment 4 1.2: Book Contents 5

1.2.1: Part One: Global Environmental Issues and Policies 5 1.2.2: Part Two: Global Environmental Organizations and Institutions 8 1.2.3: Part Three: Environmental Management and Accountability 10 1.2.4: Part Four: Controversies in Globalization and the Environment 12 Acknowledgments 14 References 14

PART I: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND POLICIES

2 Sustainable Development in an International

Perspective 19

Ross Prizzia

2.1: The Movement toward Sustainable Development 19 2.1.1: Definition 19

2.1.2: From Stockholm to Rio, Kyoto, and Beyond 20 2.1.3: Growth as a Challenge to Sustainable Development 22 2.1.4: Sustainable Development in the United States 26 2.2: National Strategies and Good Practices in OECD Countries 28 2.2.1: Policy Integration 30 2.2.2: Intergenerational Timeframe 31 2.2.3: Analysis and Assessments 32 2.2.4: Indicators and Targets 33

2.2.5: Coordination and Institutions 34 2.2.6: Local and Regional Governance 35 2.2.7: Stakeholder Participation 36 2.2.8: Monitoring and Evaluation 37 2.3: Conclusion 39 References 40

3 European Global Warming Policy 43

David Howard Davis 3.1: Introduction 43

3.2: The European Union Commission 43 3.3: Climate Change Treaty Structure 47 3.4: EU Involvement 48 3.5: The Kyoto Conference 50 3.6: Trading 53

3.7: The Individual European Countries 55 3.8: Conclusion 60 References 60

4 Transborder Air Pollution 61

Zachary A. Smith and Katrina Darlene Taylor 4.1: Introduction 61 4.2: Air Pollution 62 4.2.1: Causes 62 4.2.2: Acid Deposition 63 4.3: Countries Significantly Affected by Transborder Air Pollution 63 4.3.1: Europe 63 4.3.2: Russia 64

4.3.3: United States and Canada 64 4.3.4: United States and Mexico 65 4.3.5: China and Japan 65 4.4: The Globalization Effect 65 4.4.1: WTO 66 4.4.2: NAFTA 66

4.4.3: Viewpoints of the Relationship between Trade Liberalization and the Environment 66 4.5: International Environmental Regimes 67 4.5.1: Trail Smelter Dispute 68 4.5.2: LRTAP 69 4.5.3: MOI 71 4.5.4: La Paz 72

4.6: Conclusion: Future Trends in Transborder Air Pollution Control 72 References 75

5 Desertification 77

Stefan Bauer

5.1: Introduction 77

5.2: Desertification as a Global Issue 78

5.2.1: The Issue at Stake: Dryland Degradation 78 5.2.2: A Brief History of Desertification 81 5.2.3: Desertification and Global Interdependence 82 5.2.3.1: Agricultural Trade Liberalization 83 5.2.3.2: Climate Change and Loss of Biological Diversity 84 5.3: Governing Global Desertification 85

5.3.1: The Political Globalization of Desertification 85 5.3.2: The UNCCD Process in its First Decade 87 5.4: Summary and Outlook 90 References 91

6 The Environmental Frontier of Space 95

W. Henry Lambright and Anna Ya Ni 6.1: Introduction 95 6.2: Conceptual Framework 96 6.3: Space and the Home Planet 96

6.3.1: Space in the Environment—Energy Decade 97 6.3.2: The Ozone Hole 99

6.3.3: Mission to Planet Earth and Earth Observation System 99 6.3.4: Landsat 100 6.4: Near-Earth Orbit 102

6.4.1: The Commercial Significance of Geosynchronous Orbit 102 6.4.2: Policy Problems of Geosynchronous/

Geostationary Orbit 104 6.4.3: Electromagnetic Spectrum 105

6.4.4: The Role of International Telecommunications Union 106 6.4.5: Space Debris 106 6.4.6: The Outer Space Treaty 107 6.5: Deep Space as Environment 108 6.5.1: The Moon 108 6.5.2: Mars 109 6.5.3: Beyond 110 6.6: Conclusion 111 References 112

7 Human Rights to Water 115

Zachary A. Smith and Kristi L. Ross 7.1: Introduction 115

7.2: Addressing the Variables that Affect Access 116 7.2.1: Distribution, Supply, and Demand 116 7.2.2: Pollution 118 7.3: Toward Human Rights to Water 119

7.3.1: Integrated Water Resources Management 120 7.3.2: What is a Human Right to Water? 121 7.3.3: Challenges 123 7.3.4: International Trade 125 7.4: Implications of a Human Right to Water 126 7.5: Alternatives 129 7.6: Conclusions 130 References 132

PART II: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS

8 Global Environmental Governance 137

Frank Biermann 8.1: Introduction 137

8.2: The Concept of Global Environmental Governance 138 8.3: Characteristics of Global Environmental Governance 141 8.3.1: Increased Segmentation: Complexity through

Fragmentation 141 8.3.2: Increased Participation: Diversity through Inclusion 142 8.3.3: Increased Privatization: Negotiation through Partnerships 144 8.4: Current Reform Debates 144

8.4.1: Segmentation: the Debate on a United Nations Environment

Organization 145 8.4.2: Participation and Privatization: Institutionalizing Civil Society Involvement 148 8.5: Conclusion 149 References 150

9 The Role of the United Nations: from Stockholm to Johannesburg 155

Lisa Nelson

9.1: Introduction 155

9.2: Stockholm, 1972: Convention on the Human Environment 158 9.2.1: Creation of the UNEP 158

9.2.2: Initial Multilateral Environmental Agreements, 1972-1987 159 9.3: Brundtland Report, 1987 160

9.4: Rio De Janeiro, 1992: the Earth Summit and Agenda 21 161 9.4.1: The Rio Declaration 161 9.4.2: Agenda 21 161

9.4.3: The Convention on Climate Change 162 9.4.4: The Convention on Biodiversity 162 9.4.5: Commission on Sustainable Development 162 9.4.6: Rio +5 163

9.4.7: Summary of Rio Conference 163 9.5: The Millennium Development Goals, 2000 163 9.6: Johannesburg, 2002: Renewal of Commitments 166 9.7: Additional Conventions and Secretariats, 1993-2002 166 9.8: Beyond the 2002 Earth Summit 167 Appendix A: Rio Declaration 170 Annex I 170

Appendix B: Excerpt from the Johannesburg Declaration on

Sustainable Development 174 References 174

10 The World Trade Organization: Free Trade and Its

Environmental Impacts 177

Fariborz Zelli

10.1: Introduction 177

10.2: What Impact and How to Assess It? 178

10.2.1: Classical Assumptions about the Impact of

Trade Liberalization 178 10.2.2: Looking for a Signpost: the WTO's Effect on Domestic and International Environmental Policies and Standards 180 10.3: The WTO's Environmentally Relevant Institutions 182 10.3.1: The Old GATT and the Environment 183 10.3.2: WTO Bodies of Environmental Relevance 184 10.3.3: WTO Rules of Environmental Relevance 185 10.4: Conflicts between WTO Law and Domestic Environmental Law 187 10.4.1: Cases on Issues of Species Protection and Biological Diversity:

Direct Import Restrictions 188 10.4.2: Cases on Human Health Issues: Risk Assessment, Prior Informed

Consent, and Labeling Requirements 190 10.4.3: Conclusion: the WTO is Taking Over 192 10.5: Conflicts between WTO Law and Multilateral Environmental Agreements 193

10.5.1: Increasing Institutional Overlap and Conflict among

International Institutions 193 10.5.2: The Basel Convention, Cites and the Montreal Protocol:

Direct Import Restrictions 194 10.5.3: The Climate Change Regime: Mix of Direct and

Indirect Trade Restrictions 196 10.5.4: The Convention on Biological Diversity: Benefit-Sharing, Prior Informed Consent and Labeling Requirements 198 10.5.5: Conclusion: No Dispute, No Problem? 201 10.6: Strategies and Proposals to Improve WTO Compatibility with Environmental Law 203

10.6.1: A Solution under the Legal Status Quo? 203 10.6.2: Initiatives from the Inside 204 10.6.3: Suggestions from the Outside 206 10.7: Summary and Concluding Remarks 209 References 212

11 United Nations Conferences and the Legitimization of Environmental NGOs 217

Kyle Farmbry and Aroon Manorahan 11.1: Introduction 217 11.2: Conceptualizing NGO Growth 218 11.3: NGOs and Environment Discourse: between Stockholm and Johannesburg 220 11.3.1: Stockholm (1972) 221 11.3.2: Implications for NGOs 222 11.4: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,

Rio de Janeiro, 1992 223 11.5: Implications for NGOs 225

11.6: Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002 226

11.7: Implications for NGOs 228

11.8: Prescriptive Thoughts 228

11.9: Conclusion 230

References 231

12 Global Academia: the State of Environmental Learning and Awareness 233

Brent S. Steel and Rebecca L. Warner 12.1: Introduction 233

12.2: Why is Environmental Learning Important? 235 12.2.1: Correlates and Sources of Environmental Knowledge and Awareness 237 12.2.1.1: Information Sources 238 12.2.1.2: Formal Environmental Education 240 12.3: State of Global Environmental Awareness 240 12.4: Approaches to Increasing Environmental Awareness 244 12.4.1: Developing Countries 245 12.4.2: Postcommunist Countries 247 12.4.3: Postindustrial Countries 248 12.5: Conclusion 250 References 251

PART III: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY

Government Green Procurement in the U.S.: an Approach to Meeting Global Environmental Challenges

Jerrell D. Coggburn and Dianne Rahm

13.1

13.2

13.3

13.4

13.5

13.6

Introduction: Global Environmental Challenges 259

The U.S. Environmental Framework 260

What is "Green" Procurement? 261

Evolution of Green Procurement in Federal Government

Green Procurement in U.S. State and Local Governments

Adopting and Implementing Green Procurement 270

262 268

Green Procurement Policies: Mandatory versus Voluntary

Integrating Green Procurement 271

Strategies for Green Procurement Implementation 272

13.6.3.1: Price Preferences 273 13.6.3.2: Green Specifications 273

13.6.3.3: "Best Value" Approach and Life Cycle Analysis 274 13.6.3.4: Setting Green Procurement Goals 275 13.6.3.5: Raising Awareness about Green Procurement 275 13.6.3.6: "Green Teams" 276

13.6.3.7: Cooperative Green Procurement Efforts 277 13.7: Challenges Facing Green Procurement 277 13.8: Conclusion: Assessing Government's Green Procurement Efforts References 286

Environmental Management

Laura E. Pasquale 14.1: Introduction 289 14.2: U.S. Environmental Regulation 289 14.2.1: Introduction 289

14.2.1.1: Legislative History 290 14.2.1.2: Pollution Prevention 291 14.2.1.3: Current Regulatory Options 291

14.2.2: Systems Analysis 292

14.2.2.1: System Characteristics and Policy Implications 292 14.2.2.2: Context 293 14.3: Environmental Management Systems 297 14.3.1: Background 297 14.3.2: Systems Analysis 299

14.3.2.1: Better Alignment 299 14.3.2.2: Decreased Resistance 299 14.3.2.3: Enhanced Use of Information 300 14.3.2.4: Increased Range of Response 300 14.3.2.5: Stronger Foundation 300 14.3.2.6: Tighter Feedback Loops 300 14.3.3: Research Data 301

14.3.3.1: Systems Research 301 14.3.3.2: Stakeholder Participation 301 14.3.3.3: Future Research 303 References 304

15 Sustainable Waterfront Development in the Great

Lakes Basin 311

Wendy A. Kellogg and Erica M. Matheny 15.1: Introduction 311

15.2: Waterfront Growth, Decline and Redevelopment in the Great Lakes Basin 313 15.3: Urban Sustainability as a Framework for Waterfront Regeneration 316 15.4: Case Studies 317

15.4.1: Selection of Cases 317 15.4.2: Waterfront Redevelopment Cases 31S 15.4.2.1: Toronto, Ontario, Canada 31S 15.4.2.2: Chicago-Calumet, Illinois, United States 320 15.4.2.3: Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 322 15.4.2.4: Cleveland, Ohio, United States 325 15.5: Discussion 32S

15.5.1: Shared Historic Experiences 32S

15.5.3: Political System 329

15.5.4: The Timeframe of Planning 330

15.5.5: Sustainability as a Waterfront Planning Framework 330 Acknowledgments 331 References 331

16 Getting Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Sustainability at the Same Time: What Matters,

Edward P. Weber, Madina Khalmirzaeva, Mark Stephan,

Tetyana Lysak, and Ilhom Esanov

16.1: Introduction 335

16.2: Research Methods 337

16.3: Performance Outcomes 338

16.4: Explaining the Policy Performance of the Uzbek WUAs 343 16.4.1: Formal Institutions: form and Function 343 16.4.2: The Physical Wealth Framework 346

16.4.3: Informal Institutions: the Social Side of the Street 347 16.4.4: The Three Frameworks and the Policy Results: How Do They Measure Up? 350 16.5: Conclusion 351 Appendix A: Crop Productivity Data 353 Appendix B: Participation and Awareness Index 354 Appendix C: Levels and Sources of Outside Help 354

WUA, Outside Support Crosstabulation Results 355 Appendix D: Egalitarian and Accountability Indexes 355 Egalitarian Decision-Making Index 355 Accountability Index 356 Acknowledgments 356 References 356

17 Sustainability Issues in Public Procurement 359

Brian Pangrle

17.1: Introduction 359

17.1.1: Government Spending 359 17.1.2: Sustainable or Green Procurement? 359 17.1.3: Implementation through a Procurement Code 360 17.2: Brief Background 361 17.3: What is "Sustainable"? 361

17.3.1: Experience of U.S. Forest Service 361 17.3.2: Sustainability at Various Levels 363 17.3.3: Summary of Programs 365 17.4: Implementation in the U.S.: National and Local 366 17.4.1: U.N. to National Level 367

17.4.1.1: U.N. to U.K. and Concerning EU 367 17.4.1.2: U.S. Involvement in the U.N.: Millennium Challenge Account 367 17.4.2: U.S. National Level to Local Level 368 17.5: Objective Definitions for "Sustainable" in a Procurement Code 369

17.5.1: Example: the Mirra™ Chain and Aluminum 369 17.5.2: Example: Sustainable Buildings 371 17.6: Harmonization of Procurement Codes and

Sustainable Codes 372 17.7: Conclusion 376 References 377

18 Managing Nuclear Waste 381

Catherine Horiuchi 18.1: Introduction 381

18.2: How is Nuclear Waste Categorized? 382 18.3: Distinguishing Attributes of Nuclear Material 385 18.4: The Regulatory Framework 386 18.5: Yucca Mountain 387

18.6: Policy Modifications Resulting from the "Global War on Terror" 391 18.7: Effect of the Kyoto Protocol 392 18.8: Conclusion 393

Appendix A: Warnings across Millennia 394 Appendix B 396 References 396

19 Inter-Agency Collaborative Approaches to Endangered Species Act Compliance and Salmon Recovery in the Pacific Northwest 401

Nicholas P. Lovrich, Edward P. Weber, Michael J. Gaffney, R. Michael Bireley, Bruce Bjork, and Dayna R. Matthews 19.1: Introduction 401 19.2: Legal and Physical Setting 403 19.2.1: Background 403 19.2.2: The NOAA Response 404 19.2.3: The WDFW Response 405 19.2.4: Strategy for Implementation 406 19.3: The Methow Valley 407 19.3.1: Background 407

19.3.2: Okanogan County Memorandum of Understanding 409 19.3.3: Compliance in the Methow Valley 409 19.3.4: MOU Negotiations Fail 410 19.4: The Walla Walla River Basin 410 19.4.1: Background 410

19.4.2: A Take Occurs in the Walla Walla Basin 410 19.4.3: Compliance Issues in the Walla Walla River Basin 411 19.4.4: The Environmental Advocacy Component 412 19.4.5: Compliance in the Walla Walla Basin-Cooperation

Rather than Confrontation 413 19.4.6: The Cooperative Compliance Initiative 413 19.4.7: Interim Outcomes in the Walla Walla 414 19.5: Methods 415

19.5.1: Defining Success 415 19.5.2: The Need to Measure Outcomes 415 19.6: Findings 417

19.6.1: Demographic Factors 417 19.6.2: Environmental and Political Values 418 19.6.3: Level of Trust in Key Actors 422 19.6.4: Support for the ESA 423

19.6.5: Citizen Perceptions of Good Faith Bargaining 424 19.7: Discussion 425 19.8: Conclusion 426 References 427

PART IV: CONTROVERSIES IN GLOBALIZATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT

20 Eco-Terrorism: a Natural Reaction to Violence? 433

Michael J. Mortimer

20.1: Introduction to a Cause 433

20.2: Definitions, Semantics, and a Common Syntax 435

20.3: Direct Action in a Contemporary Context 438

20.4: Causal Factors: Self-Defense, Environmental Preservation, and Anti-Global Rhetoric 439 20.5: Defining Anti-Globalism 441 20.6: Implications for the Future 442

20.7: Remedies 443 20.8: Conclusions 445 References 446

21 Globalization, Environmental Challenges and

North-South Issues 449

Joyeeta Gupta

21.1: Introduction 449

21.2: Globalization 450

21.2.1: Introduction 450

21.2.2: Theories on Globalization: Modernization versus Re-colonization 450 21.2.3: Impacts of Globalization: Enrichment versus Impoverishment 452 21.2.4: Managed Governance: Anarchy versus Rule-Based Order 454 21.2.5: Spontaneous Globalization: Autonomous versus Orchestrated 455 21.2.6: Inferences 457 21.3: Are Resources and Environmental Space Limited? 457 21.3.1: Introduction 457

21.3.2: The Goal: Development versus Sustainable

Development 457 21.3.3: The Resource Base: Limited or Unlimited? 459 21.3.4: Environmental Space: Property or Human rights? 460 21.3.5: Inferences 460 21.4: A Brief History of North-South Issues 461 21.4.1: Introduction 461 21.4.2: North-South: Moot or Passe? 461 21.4.3: UN Politics: Development versus Environment 462 21.4.4: G-77 Power: Ebb and Flow 462 21.4.5: The Emerging Powers: Friend or Foe 463 21.4.6: Inferences 463 21.5: North-South Problems in Global Governance 464 21.5.1: Introduction 464

21.5.2: Problem Definition: Scaling Up to Gain Control;

Scaling Down to Avoid Responsibility 464 21.5.3: Dilemmas: To Do or Not to Do 465 21.5.4: Negotiation Challenges 466 21.5.5: Negotiation Outcomes 466 21.5.6: Inferences 467 21.6: Conclusion 467 Acknowledgments 468 References 468

22 Environmental Justice: a Global Perspective 473

Celeste Murphy-Greene 22.1: Introduction 473 22.2: Literature Review 474

22.2.1: Chronological History of the Environmental Justice

Movement in the United States 474 22.2.2: Environmental Justice Received National Recognition 475 22.2.3: President Clinton Formally Addressed

Environmental Justice 477 22.2.4: Analysis of Recent Environmental Justice Literature 478

22.3: Global Environmental Justice Issues 481

22.3.1: Environmental Pollution in Developing Nations 482 22.3.2: Corporate Transnational Environmental Crime 483 22.4: Cases of Global Environmental Injustice 484

22.4.1: Nigeria's Ogoniland: a Region of Contrasts 484 22.4.2: Post-Apartheid South Africa 485 22.4.3: United States-Mexican Border Region 486 22.5: Conclusion 487 Acknowledgments 488 References 489

23 Globalization and Growth of Developing Countries 491

Dang Tran

23.1: The Globalization Process 491 23.2: Effects of Globalization on LDCs 495 23.3: What Should LDCs Do? 499

23.3.1: The Necessity of a Market Economy 499 23.3.2: Opportunity Provided by Globalization 500

23.3.3: Costs, Prices, Product Qualities, and Technological Innovations 501 23.3.4: Institutional Factors 502 23.3.5: Role of the Government 503 23.3.6: Attractiveness and Competitiveness of a Nation 505 23.3.7: Emphasis on Manufactures and High-Technology Products 506 23.3.8: Environmental Consequence of Growth 508 23.4: A Growth Model as a Guide for Policy Formulation 509 23.4.1: Demand for Export Function 510 23.4.2: Demand for Import Function 510 23.4.3: Balance of Payments Equilibrium Condition 510 23.4.4: Wage Setting Condition 513 23.4.5: Verdoorn's Law 513

23.4.6: Balance of Payment Equilibrium Growth 514 23.5: Empirical Estimation of Parameters 515 23.6: Policy Implication of Globalization 515 23.7: Conclusion 518 Appendix A 519 Appendix B 520

A. Wage Cost 520

B. Increasing Returns to Scale 521

C. Capital Inflows 521

D. Inflation 521

E. Expansion of the World Economy 522

F. Currency Devaluation 522 References 522

24 Complexity and the Science—Policy Interface 527

Kathi K. Beratan 24.1: Introduction 527

24.2: Complex and Contentious Problems 528 24.3: Shifting Views of Science 529 24.4: Institutional Change 532

24.5: Practical Strategies for Managing the Interface 536 24.5.1: Question-Framing 537

24.5.1.1: Problem Definition 537

24.5.1.2: Formulation of Scientific Research Questions 539 24.5.2: Models as Tools to Assist Development of Shared Understanding 54ü 24.5.3: Boundary Organizations 542 24.6: Process Design Considerations 545 24.7: Conclusion 547 Acknowledgments 548 References 548

25 Multi-Party Environmental Negotiations: the Democratizing

Nations of Mexico and Ecuador 553

Jennifer E. Horan and Donna L. Lybecker 25.1: Introduction 553

25.2: Negotiations within Latin American Countries 555 25.3: Mexico 555

25.3.1: Mexican Environmental Politics and Management 556 25.3.2: The Mexican State 557

25.3.3: Mexican Environmental Negotiations: the Actors 558 25.3.4: Genuine Inclusion or Superficial Change?

The Gray Whale Controversy 559 25.3.5: Mexican Environmental Negotiations: Gray Whales and the Desert Biosphere Reserve 56Q 25.3.6: Mexican Environmental Negotiations: Lessons from the Gray Whale Controversy 562 25.4: Ecuador 563

25.4.1: Ecuadorian Environmental Politics and Management 564 25.4.2: Problems of Institutional Legitimacy 565 25.4.3: Ecuadorian Environmental "Negotiations": the Actors 566 25.4.4: Ecuadorian Environmental Negotiations: the Case of

Cayapas-Mataje 568 25.4.5: Ecuadorian Environmental Negotiations: Lessons from the Case of Cayapas-Mataje 569 25.5: Conclusion 57Ü References 572

Chapter 1

Globalization and the Environment: an Introduction

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