Stockholm Convention on the Human Environment

The report issued by the Convention on the Human Environment held in Stockholm is the foundational document and reference point for subsequent advancements toward protection of the global environment made in Rio de Janeiro and Johannesburg.

Farazmand [11] describes prior UN development concerns as focusing entirely on economic development based on the model of the industrial West. Western support for UN development programs was primarily motivated by the desire to compete with Communist regimes for the loyalty of the developing countries [11]. The environment has only been a concern of the public and national and international law and institutions for the past 40 years [12,13]. The Stockholm Conference represented a shift in the understanding of global needs, responsive to growing public awareness of environmental deterioration and its causes. The international think tank Club of Rome published its highly influential study, Limits to Growth, in 1972, sparking awareness and debate over the question of whether the earth could sustain the rising economic expectations of the world's populations, and predicting that current growth rates could not be sustained for another 100 years [14]. With rising environmental awareness, Western countries began to be interested in the manner and the trajectory of development in the less developed countries.

The Stockholm Convention in June 1972 led to UN General Assembly Resolution 2997, which established the UNEP. This Convention was the first "serious international attempt to grapple with global environmental problems" and also led to treaties to save endangered species (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)) and reduce pollution [14].

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

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