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* The notion that issue-linkages and multiple forums alter the interests of member states and enhance cooperation is deeply rooted in the neo-institutionalist school of international relations theory. Unlike their neo-realist counterparts (who understand international institutions as the short-lived epiphenomena of power constellations among members [Mearsheimer, International Security, 1994]), neo-institutionalists like Keohane (After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy 1984; International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory, 1989) believe that organizations and regimes can make a difference by connecting issues and by enhancing the continuity of political relationships over time (cf. Hasenclever, Mayer, and Rittberger 1997).

However, as Raustiala and Victor (2004) further observe, multi-arena constellations can also be abused by member states through a practice of "forum shopping", i.e., actors seek out the forum most favorable to their interests. Thus, in order to create win-win effects for both objectives, issue-linkages always need to be flanked by a further strengthening of the involved institutions. t For instance, in the WTO, the global climate regime or the ozone regime, the bulk of developing countries have been acting as environmental laggards; but when it comes to the issues of biological diversity and intellectual property rights, they have been playing an almost reversed role (cf. Biermann, Climate Policy 2005).

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