Pollution Prevention

In an attempt to address the limitations of media-specific laws and statutes, the U.S. Congress passed the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act [20,21]. This act defines pollution prevention as "source reduction" of pollution, and includes any practice which, (a) reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; and (b) reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants.

These practices include both increasing efficiency in resource use and/or conservation [10], with the intent of eliminating pollution altogether, rather than simply regulating its production. By allowing flexibility in adopted practices, the Act also takes regulation beyond the traditional "command and control" approaches, which establish both standards of performance and the means of achieving them [4].

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