Political System

Our cases demonstrate that the political system that frames the planning process matters. Differences in the political system and planning function between Canada and the United States have shaped the overall planning and redevelopment procedure. In Canada, authority flows from the federal government to the provinces to the region, and to the locality. This means that official plans adopted at the provincial and regional level exert influence in determining local land use and development. The presence of multi-purpose regional governments in Canada introduces planning at a regional scale as an official context for waterfront development. The influence of the regional conservation authorities, which have a legal role in land use plans at the regional scale, should not be underestimated. In both Toronto and Hamilton, the conservation authorities have been successful in their efforts to ensure that recreational open space and habitat areas were preserved and restored as part of waterfront redevelopment plans. No comparable governmental influence, either in terms of regional government or regional conservation authority, exists in the United States, and as a result local governments in our two featured cities guide waterfront redevelopment. In these cases, commercial real estate and nongovernmental advocacy organizations compete to influence the process in the absence of a strong regional influence.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

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