Part Three Environmental Management and Accountability

Environmental management and accountability is the theme of Part Three. Concerns over environmental degradation and environmental sustainability have pushed governments to search for new ways to combat environmental problems. Jerrell D. Coggburn and Dianne Rahm's chapter addresses one such approach: green procurement. Green procurement attempts to address environmental challenges by taking advantage of a government's vast purchasing power to create strong markets for environmentally friendly (i.e., "green") products and services. Coggburn and Rahm first review the policy framework for green procurement in the United States. Next, they explore developments in green procurement at the national, state, and local levels. The chapter presents several broad strategies governments and procurement professionals can pursue in implementing green procurement, such as, creating price preferences, developing green product and service specifications, and forming green teams. The chapter concludes by identifying several challenges facing governments implementing green procurement policies and offering guidance on overcoming them.

Laura Pasquale's chapter on environmental management begins with an overview of U.S. environmental regulation and the current range of pollution prevention mechanisms, both voluntary and mandatory, in use. She argues that despite the fact that we spend billions of dollars each year trying to prevent pollution, relatively little is known about how and why pollution prevention efforts work. After reviewing the weakness of the current media-based (air, water, and waste) regulatory structure, Pasquale argues that to improve environmental quality, policy makers and regulators need to view the environment and the cultures within it as complex systems. The complex system here refers to the constant interaction of individuals and groups, plants and animals, and local and global ecosystems. The awareness of this complexity results in the attempt to move away from "command and control" regulatory structures towards more flexible options, including social marketing, financial incentives, integrative regulation, sustainability projects, pollution prevention, promotion of new technologies, and self-certification. The chapter then introduces the environmental management system (EMS) and shows how the EMS is effective in addressing that complexity. The chapter concludes with recommendations for sustaining participation in the EMS.

In "Sustainable Waterfront Development in the Great Lakes Basin," Wendy Kellogg and Erica Matheny focus on the role globalization has played in the economic function of cities—specifically the cities of Canada and the United States that historically have depended on the Great Lakes basin to fuel their urban cores. In the last several decades, many of these cities have sought to reverse the loss of a population and industrial base that came with globalization through a reinvestment in their waterfronts. For some of the cities, this reinvestment has primarily been in industry. For other cities, the investment has been in quality of life amenities and ecological restoration. The chapter describes efforts in four cities to create urban sustainability by making their waterfront the centerpiece.

In their exploration of public policy efforts aimed at promoting both agricultural productivity increases and environmental sustainability, Edward Weber, Madina Khalmirzaeva, Mark Stephan, Tetyana Lysak, and Ilhom Esanov look at the role of water user associations in Uzbekistan. They argue that a more refined understanding of institutional and social dynamics is required for good public policy to be forged. They emphasize the importance of substantive citizen participation in the policy process, collaborative decision processes, and distributed decision-making authority as key to success of sustainable agricultural practices in Uzbekistan.

In "Sustainability Issues and Public Procurement," Brian Pangrle provides a two-prong approach highlighting the issues that need to be confronted to establish a sustainable procurement model. Emphasizing the differences between "green procurement" and "sustainable procurement," Pangrle argues that green measures, while useful, fall short of the goal of sustainable practices. The practical issues that confront governments as they establish and try to implement sustainable procurement codes are discussed.

Catherine Horiuchi's chapter focuses on the management of nuclear waste. After briefly reviewing the types and characteristics of radioactive wastes that need to be managed, she turns to a discussion of the planned U.S. permanent repository at Yucca Mountain. Over budget and many years behind expected completion, the failure of the government to provide a repository to receive both civilian and military radioactive waste has had enormous consequences. These include the problems presented to the nuclear industry of how to continue to store spent fuel rods in temporary on-site facilities, the contamination problems at nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as the potential for terrorists gaining access to nuclear materials. Horiuchi discusses the routes that other countries have taken to handle their nuclear waste, including reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel (MOX) technologies to reduce the mass of waste needing permanent storage. She closes on a note of uncertainty, pointing out that while global warming is making production of electricity via nuclear power more attractive, the problems of disposal are still not tractable, and waste continues to amass without a solution in sight.

In their chapter, Nicholas P. Lovrich, Michael J. Gaffney, Edward P. Weber, R. Michael Bierley, Dayna R. Matthews, and Bruce Bjork examine a collaborative community-based approach to environmental regulatory compliance. In particular, the authors examine salmon recovery efforts in the Pacific Northwest within the regulatory context of the United States Endangered Species Act. The chapter contrasts two cases, Methow Valley and the Walla Walla Basin, where efforts have succeeded in achieving legal compliance and protecting endangered species. While both efforts were successful, the authors point to the advantages of pursuing the proactive collaborative enforcement model, referred to as Resource-Oriented Enforcement (ROE), exemplified in Walla Walla. Cited advantages of ROE include it being less polarizing, while promoting trust between citizens and government regulatory agencies, and forming a foundation for future cooperative compliance efforts. The model holds promise for resource protection efforts generally, but requires attention to training regulators in proactive approaches and appreciation for factors that can mitigate success like history and relationships from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Success is more likely where regulatory agencies are consistent, predictable, and reliable and where communities exhibit high levels of social capital.

1.2.4 Part Four: Controversies in Globalization and the Environment

The book concludes with a discussion of the controversies in globalization and the environment. Michael Mortimer's chapter, "Ecoterrorism: A Natural Reaction of Violence?" explores the behavior of radical environmentalists in their efforts to prevent environmental degradation. After discussing the common definitions, syntax, and semantics of direct action, ecoterrorism, environmental terrorism, and ecotage, Mortimer reflects on environmental activists' differentiation of the use of violence against property versus the use of violence against people. Direct action tactics against property (such as arson; tree spiking; or sabotage to equipment, vehicles, buildings, and laboratories) is compared to intimidation campaigns (harassing letters and telephone calls) versus direct physical violence (assault). Mortimer discusses the concern that growing links exist between ecoterrorists and antiglobalist activists. In the antiglobalism context, direct action tactics often result in street violence and chaos that, according to the author, is hard to dismiss as nonviolent even if no assaults against individuals occur. The author agues that the merging of ecoterror groups with antiglobaliza-tion efforts may move ecoterrorists more in the direction of crimes against persons than property. The author concludes with a concern that if such a shift does occur, it will signal a new chapter in direct environmental action in the United States.

Joyeeta Gupta addresses the issues associated with globalization, environmental challenges, and North-South disputes. After exploring these concepts separately, she links the ideas together. She argues that North-South friction has arisen out of the colonial past, a past that is largely ignored by the North but is a vital issue in the South, which seeks to reorganize itself away from the colonial forms. The author argues that it is in this context that environment and development issues become complex. The chapter explores much of this complexity.

Achieving equal protection from environmental and health hazards is the focus of Celeste Murphy-Greene's chapter on environmental justice. The chapter traces the historical development of environmental justice in the United States, where interest in environmental justice first developed, and reviews the current literature on the subject. Her discussion draws parallels between environmental justice issues and causes in the United States and other countries around the world. For example, she cites research showing that the location of hazardous waste facilities is strongly correlated with communities' racial minorities and, to a lesser degree, socioeconomic status; similar results are reported in other countries. Generally, these communities have different perceptions of and tolerance for risk and are less well equipped to respond to any perceived risk. She notes further that, globally, many less-developed countries are willing to accept the short-term economic benefits of harboring other countries' hazardous waste or opening foreign-owned, high-polluting facilities over the long-term costs to environmental conditions and health. The chapter's final section explores these issues in more depth with three cases exemplifying forms of environmental injustice: Nigeria, South Africa, and the United States-Mexico Border Region. Murphy-Greene concludes with a call for support of an international environmental court that would serve as an impartial decision maker for those impacted by unjust environmental conditions.

Dang T. Tran's chapter examines the promotion of economic growth through globalization in less-developed countries (LDCs). Tran discusses the requisite economic development forces for industrialization and development including, among other things, market economies and governments active in both framing rules for economic activity and developing technological capacity. He argues that vertical specialization (that is, specializing on a particular aspect of the production process) allows LDCs to operate successfully in the global arena without requiring firms to master an entire production process. This, along with technological upgrades, can set the stage for LDCs to move on to more sophisticated production. Importantly, as the author mentions, environmental problems often accompany development efforts in LDCs, including untreated waste polluting water supplies, increased production of greenhouse gases, acid rain, and soil erosion. These problems grow in intensity, and occur in a compressed amount of time, as LDCs move from agriculture- to industry-based economies, ebbing only as they move from industry- to service-based economies. This creates the need for LDCs to integrate environmental policy considerations into their overall development strategy. Finally, the chapter shifts from supply issues to a consideration of demand conditions. Here, Tran develops a growth model intended to identify goods to be produced and policies to be adopted in order for LDCs to be successful in the global environment.

In "Managing the Science-Policy Interface in a Complex and Contentious World," Kathi Beratan explores the relationship between science and the ability of scientists to communicate so that policy makers can use science in decision making. She asks: How can we modify the science-policy interface so that we more effectively put knowledge to work towards addressing significant problems? The chapter begins with an exploration of our coupled social and ecological systems, which the author contends are complex and adaptive. The author argues that in these coupled systems, a change to any part of the system will be reflected in the system as a whole. These changes may result in major shifts in system conditions and behaviors, which might occur abruptly and with very little advanced warning. These changes are likely to be irreversible. When dealing with these kinds of problems, decision makers usually turn to scientists. But there is a boundary between scientists and policy makers that must be bridged if science is to be brought to the decision maker's assistance. The rest of the chapter explores how this border might be bridged.

The Horan and Lybecker chapter titled "Multiparty Environmental Negotiations: The Democratizing Nations of Mexico and Ecuador," focuses on the issue of multiparty communication in nations' transitioning to greater democracy. The authors use the cases of Mexico and Ecuador to explore the intricacies of environmental negotiations within the context of increasing grassroots and international pressure for transparency in environmental decision making. Mexico, a relatively wealthy developing nation with NAFTA ties to the United States and Canada, and Ecuador, a geographically small and poor nation, illustrate the diversity of progress toward open multiparty environmental negotiation within the democratizing states of Latin America.

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