NGOs and Environment Discourse between Stockholm and Johannesburg

Within an environmental context, the growth of NGOs has provided much of the momentum in activities and the emergence of policies and perspectives. The thirty-year period between the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment and the 2002 Summit on Sustainable Development represents the culminating recognition of many of the post-industrial environmental realities for many parts of the world. It also represents a time period when NGOs increasingly were able to move to a more central role in the articulation and advocacy of various environmental policies that ultimately placed environmental concerns at the center of many national and international discussions about the future of humankind. Finally, it represents a period during which a number of vital issues related to a North-South discourse within a development framework surfaced. Each of these shifts—the post-industrial, the changing make-up of the advocates, and the shifting North-South developmental discourse—have all had integrated within their frameworks a role for and by non-governmental organizations. The UN's environmental meetings serve as useful benchmarks for examining the evolving discourse on these issues. Our examination of the progression of these meetings vis-a-vis the various conferences aims to present a background on the conferences with a focus on key outcomes for each conference and implications for NGOs.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

Always wanted to get a better deal but didn't have the needed negotiation skills? Here are some of the best negotiation theories. The ability to negotiate is a skill which everyone should have. With the ability to negotiate you can take charge of your life, your finances and your destiny. If you feel that others are simply born with the skill to negotiate, you should know that everyone can learn this wonderful skill.

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