Mill

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year

Figure 7.2 World water use by year from 1950 to 2000. Includes data from the continents of Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, and Oceania (Data from Dolatyar, M. and Gray, T., Water Politics in the Middle East, 1st ed., St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York, 2000. With permission.)

non-point source pollution. Point source pollution can be traced to a specific, known source, such as a leak in a sewage pipeline. Non-point source pollution has more diffuse origins, such as agricultural pesticides. The exact originating location of such non-point source pollution is difficult to determine. It often originates upstream, sometimes in neighboring states or countries, adding another variable to transboundary disputes. Once again, collaborative management practices may hold the answer to solving transboundary disputes involving pollution, as well as distribution, supply, and demand.

The infrastructure required to treat and deliver water is costly, and in the case of developing nations where many people cannot pay the economic price for water, it is nearly impossible for the government to provide this infrastructure without outside help. As discussed later, many developing nations have turned to private, often international, water companies to provide the infrastructure that is so critical for clean, safe drinking water. At least one author has suggested that international funding may be required to meet the infrastructure needs of many developing countries [6]. In the context of globalization, this suggests that solving the freshwater problem may further the interdependence of countries upon one another, which may complicate attempts to solve problems on local and regional scales. The next section will explore the historical context of international solutions to the freshwater problem. Though there has always been a focus on management issues, recent discourse in the international community has placed a greater focus on governance issues.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

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