Informal Institutions the Social Side of the Street

The third and final explanatory framework involves a series of informal institutional elements focused on the civil society and engagement dynamics within WUAs and the farming communities themselves [22-24]. To capture this dynamic, we measure social capital and the degree of democratization of WUAs, as measured by egalitarian and accountability indexes. This framework posits that a collaborative WUA will more likely achieve the two policy goals of improved crop productivity and improved environmental sustain-ability to the extent that a community possesses strong social capital combined with a belief by WUA members that they have "ownership," or

Table 16.8 Physical Wealth Scores and Predicted Rank

Land Resources

Water Resources (Volume)

Water Resources (Access)

Economics (Surrounding Area)

Economics (Access to Outside Resources)

Total Physical Wealth Score (25 Possible Points)

Predicted Rank

Aganay

Middle (3)

Middle (3)

Strong (5)

Above Average (4)

Below Average (2)

17

2nd

Amir Temur

Middle (3)

Scarce/arid (1)

Weak (1)

Middle (3)

Poor (1)

9

6th

Berdakh

Poor (1)

Scarce/arid (1)

Middle (3)

Poor (1)

Rich (5)

11

5th

Dnepr Kama

Middle (3)

Above average (4)

Middle (3)

Middle (3)

Poor (1)

14

3rd

Jambul

Below average (2)

Scarce/arid (1)

Weak (1)

Below average (2)

Below average (2)

8

7th

Oq Oltin

Rich (5)

Plentiful/wet (5)

Middle (3)

Above average (4)

Below average (2)

19

1st

Tulkun

Middle (3)

Middle (3)

Below average (2)

Middle (3)

Poor (1)

12

4th

Table 16.9 Trust Index Scores and Rankings of WUAs

Trust Index #1

Trust Index #2

Trust Index #3

Community

Cumulative

Predicted

Occupation

Ethnic/Cultural

Cohesion

Score

Rank

Aganay

-0.3095

-0.5093

-0.5407

-1.36

7th

Amir Temur

0.2816

-0.0201

-0.3983

-0.137

5th

Berdakh

0.392

0.3084

0.8542

1.555

2nd

Dnepr Kama

0.0957

-0.3859

- 0.5798

- 0.87

6th

Jambul

-0.0523

0.1952

0.1225

0.265

4th

Oq Oltin

0.7087

-0.5758

0.4143

0.547

3rd

Tulkun

1.6899

0.6355

0.2765

2.602

1st

a real stake in, and influence over, WUA decisions and the way the institution works.*

Social capital is defined as the extent to which a community develops a web of horizontal, cooperative relationships built on trust. To explore social capital, we employed a battery of questions from the Social Capital Survey of the World Bank that are designed for use by researchers in developing countries around the globe [25]. From our survey data, we constructed three indexes of trust, and then combined them into a single measure. Trust Index 1 focuses on how much trust WUA members have for different types of people in terms of their occupation,1 while Trust Index 2 elaborates on the amount of trust WUA members have for people of different cultures and ethnicities, and Trust Index 3 elucidates the amount of community trust/social cohesion found in each WUA "community" of members (see Appendix D for the cross tab results). Table 16.9 displays the trust scores.

Democratization is defined as the extent to which the WUA has set up informal means by which its membership (and even those outside of the organization) can participate in decision-making and expect that those in leadership positions will be responsive. To explore democratization, we created a number of questions related to how the WUA operates in terms of leader and member interaction, the nature and extent of participation of members, and the informal mechanisms by which WUA members have their voices heard and their concerns addressed. From our survey data we created two key indexes. The first, our Egalitarian Index, pulls together thirteen

* [9,29-31], among others, find that high levels of social capital (trust) and/or ownership are important for effective environmental protection, natural resource governance, and sustainability. [10,28,32], among others, find that the central component of social capital, trust, is critical to economic development, with higher levels of trust associated with improved efficiency and economic development.

t For pragmatic and security reasons as regards the research effort, we dropped the World Bank instrument's references to trust in "police" and "national government."

Table 16.10

Combined Trust, Egalitarian and Accountability Index Scores

Informal

Egalitarian

Accountability

Institutions

Trust Score

Score

Score

Cumulative

Predicted

(standardized)

(standardized)

(standardized)

Score

Rank

(5 to -5)

(5 to -5)

(5 to - 5)

Aganay

-4.9

- 4.67

-3.62

-13.19

7th

Amir Temur

-1.85

- 4.92

- 4.58

-11.35

6th

Berdakh

2.375

4.99

1.44

8.81

1st

Dnepr Kama

-3.675

-2.18

- 0.95

- 6.81

5th

Jambul

-0.825

0.57

0.70

0.45

3rd

Oq Oltin

-0.125

2.14

3.89

5.91

2nd

Tulkun

5.0

- 3.46

- 3.36

- 1.82

4th

questions related to the participatory nature of the WUAs. For example, are most decisions left to those in leadership or are there opportunities for wider participation? Does the member-based Assembly meet often or infrequently? Who gets to choose the Chairman for the WUA?* The second index, our Accountability Index, brings together questions related to the ability of members to influence the actions of the leadership. Can WUA members replace the Chairman if needed? Can members replace Council members? Are all decision-making records open to the membership for their review? Combined with the summary "trust" score, these two indexes allow us to better understand the extent to which decision-making is hierarchical within each of the WUAs. Table 16.10 displays the scores along with the Trust Index scores and a combined score for the three social capital and democratization indexes.

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