Increased Participation Diversity through Inclusion

Second, global environmental governance departs from international politics because of the degree of participation by different actors that were earlier confined to the national sphere. The Westphalian system of international politics was characterized as politics among states. Non-state actors were either nonexistent or lacked sufficient power to influence affairs beyond territorial borders. There have been exceptions—such as the Catholic Church with its highly centralized system of authority or the transnational antislavery movement in the 19th century—yet those remained rare and confined to specific historic circumstances. The notion of global governance departs from traditional state-centred politics in accepting a host of non-state entities as new influential actors in transnational relations. The field of environmental policy provides ample illustrations for this evolution of a "multi-actor governance system".

The new role of nongovernmental lobbying organizations in world politics, for example, has been acknowledged and analyzed for decades. Activist groups, business associations and policy research institutes now provide research and policy advice, monitor the commitments of states, inform governments and the public about the actions of their own diplomats and those of negotiation partners, and give diplomats at international meetings direct feedback [20-23,47]. Carefully orchestrated campaigns of environmentalists have proved capable of changing foreign policy of powerful nation states—markedly in the campaign against the dumping of the Brent Spar—or initiating new global rules, such as the global campaign on banning anti-personnel landmines.

Second, networks of scientists have assumed a new role in providing complex technical information that is indispensable for policy-making on issues marked by both analytic and normative uncertainty. While the new role of experts in world politics is evident in many policy areas, it is particularly prevalent in the field of global environmental policy [48]. New international networks of scientists and experts have emerged, in a mix of self-organization and state-sponsorship, to provide scientific information on both the kinds of environmental problems at stake and the options for decision-makers to cope with them. Such scientific advice for political decision-making is not new in world politics; negotiations on fishing quotas for example have long been assisted by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. These early examples, however, have significantly increased in both number and impact, which is mirrored in the substantial academic interest in global scientific networks in recent years [49,50-54].

Third, business has taken a more prominent direct role in international decision-making. Again, the influence of major companies on international affairs is not new, and in some social theories, such as Marxism, business actors have been granted center stage in global affairs. However, this "old" influence by the corporate sector was mainly indirect through its influence on national governments. Today, many corporations take a more visible, direct role in international negotiations as immediate partners of governments, for example in the framework of the UNs and of the Global Compact that major corporations have concluded with the world organization [55-57].

Fourth, global governance is marked by an increasing influence of intergovernmental organizations [58]. In the field of environmental policy, more than two hundred international organizations have been set-up in the form of secretariats to the many international environmental treaties concluded in the last two decades. Whether the creation of a new United Nations Environment Organization (UNEO) would help or harm global environmental governance has been debated for more than thirty years, with no conclusive answer (see the related discussion below).

Fifth, global governance is characterized by new, more powerful forms of supranational jurisdiction. While the International Court of Justice in The Hague has been available for the settlement of interstate disputes for almost eighty years without ever being involved in major conflicts, new tribunals have been established recently, with a considerable and unprecedented degree of compliance by state governments. These include the international criminal tribunals in

The Hague, the dispute settlement body under the World Trade Organization, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, as well as the new International Criminal Court. While states remain the eventual sources of authority through their power to alter the legal standards that international courts may apply, and through their remaining option to reject a court's judgment or jurisdiction, current evidence suggests that even powerful nations accept international jurisdiction on sensitive issues, notably in the area of trade.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

Always wanted to get a better deal but didn't have the needed negotiation skills? Here are some of the best negotiation theories. The ability to negotiate is a skill which everyone should have. With the ability to negotiate you can take charge of your life, your finances and your destiny. If you feel that others are simply born with the skill to negotiate, you should know that everyone can learn this wonderful skill.

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