Implications for NGOs

While the Johannesburg Declaration established a set of goals and principles for continued activity related to sustainable development, the most direct impact on NGOs of the WSSD was the framework established by the Type II partnerships. This added to the initial legitimization process framed by organizations engaged in these structures.

For NGOs the perspective of WSSD was mixed. On the one hand, NGOs had to face the reality that they had gone into the conference with no clear central message. However, the framework established by the Type II partnerships provided NGOs with a framework for some activity, which they otherwise lacked. Type II partnerships also provided a means for NGOs to engage in mechanisms of involvement in communities.

Overall, the Johannesburg Summit did not enable NGOs to depart with a sense of overarching accomplishment, particularly in comparison to earlier summits, such as Rio and even Stockholm. In particular, the ability of NGOs to leverage a strong agenda was minimal in comparison to what NGOs were able to achieve in earlier summits. The failures of the Johannesburg Summit, particularly in relation to the roles of NGOs in the larger environmental discourse, provided, however, a framework for some of the more prescriptive adaptations and issues related to environmental activities that we will now explore.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

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