Recognition of the problem of transborder air pollution in Europe began in 1968 when the Swedish scientist Svante Oden published his findings on a study of precipitation in Scandinavia. He argued that acidic precipitation was causing damage to fish and lakes and was largely caused by industrial emissions traveling from Britain and Central Europe [7]. By the late 1970s countries like

Austria, Switzerland, and all of the Nordic states, with the exception of Iceland, were importing significantly more sulfur than they were producing.

Forest decline due to acid deposition has been most prevalent in Europe, especially in Germany and Scandinavia, where much of the pollutants that cause acid deposition were imported from other countries [8]. This was largely due to the West-East wind pattern and variations in regional ecosystem sensitivity [9]. In Norway and Sweden, thousands of lakes contain no fish and have lost their acid neutralizing capabilities [8].

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

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