Conclusion On Globalization For

The global environmental movement has paralleled a changing level of legitimization of organizations working in the nongovernmental sector. From the late 1960s to the present, we have experienced a greater degree of engagement in several environmental issues and matters. The same time period has also witnessed an explosion of organizations working in the third or nongovernmental sector.

The activity related to the three UN summits examined provide a framework for examining the growing patterns and processes related to legitimacy vis-a-vis the nongovernmental sector. The Stockholm Summit occurred at a time when governmental actors were viewed as the most legitimate in terms of institutions positioned to respond to the needs of a society, including environmental issues within their society. Rio saw the emergence of NGOs as vital actors. Both at Rio and the years immediately following Rio, NGOs played vital roles in advancing the agendas in environmental as well as other areas.

Johannesburg occurred when the general environment facing NGOs that was prevalent during the 1990s had begun to shift. Whereas we realized in the early 1970s that government could not do it all by itself, and by the 1990s we had a discourse on action for engaging NGOs, we had begun to recognize by early

2000 there might be a route to engage business in partnerships with NGOs by the time of the Johannesburg conference.

The evolution of the discourse on the role of NGOs vis-a-vis the state, in particular in the "post-state" era, is evolving. As we have noted, some have argued that the emergence of NGOs in such an era, has led to the exploration of them as the institutions that might fill in several of the voids in addressing concerns of the environment as well as other needs facing the world in the future.

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Negotiating Essentials

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