Cleveland Ohio United States

Founded in 1796, Cleveland is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. Both the lakefront and river valley were developed for commercial and later industrial enterprise. During the mid- and late 19th century, railroad and port facilities dotted the shoreline, as Cleveland's steel, chemical, and other heavy industries came to dominate [13,47]. Planning for Cleveland's waterfront has been, for the most part, piecemeal, narrowly focused, uncoordinated across jurisdictions, and driven by real estate and commercial interests in the city. Today, land use along the 18 miles (29 kilometers) of greater Cleveland's shoreline is still dominated by traffic arteries, industrial facilities, and other private land uses. Pedestrian and local access, lakefront parks and recreation and public land uses are secondary [48]. During the 1990s, the city developed an inner harbor area focused on tourism that includes the Great Lakes Science Center and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (Figure 15.3). Despite this success, the city struggles with the legacy of development decisions made over the past 100 years and has been unable to identify and forge a shared vision of how the entire lakefront should be used.

In April 2002, then-Mayor Jane Campbell launched "Connecting Cleveland: The Lakefront Plan" to develop a community consensus for the future of Cleveland's lakefront. The goal of the comprehensive planning effort was to create a long-range plan for the eight miles of lakefront in the City of Cleveland [49]. Two local foundations agreed to fund development of a

Figure 15.3 Central Waterfront, Cleveland, Ohio.

lakefront plan, but required formation of the Lakefront Partners to oversee development of the plan. The Lakefront Partners included the City of Cleveland, Cleveland Tomorrow (leaders in the business community), the Growth Association (the chamber of commerce), Cleveland Neighborhood Development Corporation (representing community development corporations and neighborhood groups), and Project BLUE (an ad hoc organization representing a coalition of citizen and environmental organizations). Through this partnership the foundations sought a planning process and outcome that would represent the major stakeholders in the community, including the business community.

A team of planning consultants with years of experience on waterfront development (although from outside northeast Ohio) was hired by the partners to oversee the lakefront plan development. The planning process had three phases. Phase 1, in 2002, focused on improved access between Cleveland's neighborhoods and its waterfronts, as well as the changes Clevelanders wanted to the lakefront. Phase 2, in 2003, took feedback from the community on the consultants' concepts in nearly 20 meetings in neighborhoods along the lakefront, and investigated constraints and opportunities for transforming Cleveland's lakefront. The resulting framework, known as the Waterfront District Plan, was approved in August 2003 by the City Planning Commission and was used to guide the preparation of more detailed development plans for six specific lakefront areas during Phase 3. The final lakefront plan was presented to the public in the fall of 2004 as a comprehensive, long-term plan that connects Cleveland's neighborhoods with its lakefront.

The plan was developed with an unprecedented (for Cleveland) level of public involvement that included the meetings in different lakefront neighborhoods and collaboration with the Levin College of Urban Affairs at Cleveland State University on a waterways/lakefront-focused series of public educational forums [50]. In an editorial, the Plain Dealer, the regional newspaper, celebrated the high level of public involvement with the planning process: "Anyone whose voice hasn't been heard since Mayor Jane Campbell initiated the conversation in April 2002 hasn't tried to be heard.. And they (the city planning director and staff) listened. As this plan has evolved, the public's impact has been evident" [51].

The plan was developed by first identifying a vision ("to shape the lakefront as the most vital element in the transformation of Cleveland as a place to live, work and play") and five planning parameters: integrate neighborhoods to the shoreline; capitalize on topography and natural features as assets; improve the three existing parks on the lakefront; transform a limited-access shoreway into a lakefront scenic byway; and develop accessible and connected public spaces. Planners developed the comprehensive plan by integrating five systems of study (access and connections, water-related improvements, parks and open space, neighborhood development, and sustainability) [49]. Each of these systems set parameters for design and planning decisions, and was developed into a planning agenda that provided action steps for implementation of the plan. The "sustainability" system in the plan "represents the underlying framework which defines the plan's values and strategy to create a sustainable urban environment." The planning agenda for each system stresses the lakefront as a special place, with a "unique combination of physical, cultural, social, and perhaps spiritual characteristics" that may "inspire people to care for and invest in their community" [49].

Key action areas under the sustainability system include buildings, energy, stormwater/water quality, transportation, materials, education and policy, landscape, and the ecological environment. Although the Waterfront District Plan is relatively new, several key steps have been taken to implement various aspects of the five systems and their action agendas to include sustainable practices. For future buildings, the city adopted guidelines for green building standards and will encourage developers to use them. For energy, the city has partnered with an energy-focused non-profit organization and a regional entrepreneur to assess the feasibility for creating a wind-turbine facility offshore along the lakefront. A windmill has been placed atop the city's drinking water intake crib some three miles into the lake that is measuring wind speed and consistency for the next six months [52]. The goal will be to incorporate energy from the windmills into current city-owned energy generation capacity.

Improving stormwater and overall water quality is a significant challenge that will be addressed over several years. The Waterfront District is home to several large combined sewer overflow fall out pipes that introduce sewage and nonpoint source pollutants into the lakefront beaches and docksides each time the city receives a significant rain. The regional sewer district and the city secured monies to construct a series of underground storage vaults that will contain stormwater and gradually release it to the sewage treatment plant, avoiding the outfall along the beaches. Once these are completed, the waterfront district will have significantly improved water quality.

Two transportation projects are moving forward. The existing waterfront light rail, which has not received much use since it was built in mid-1990s, will be connected to the downtown core and a high-speed bus system that will soon link the waterfront to other key cultural and employment centers in the city. Secondly, on the western portion of the Waterfront District, a limited access highway that has separated the water from several neighborhoods will be converted to a boulevard. This will allow for at-grade street connections from the lakeshore area to the neighborhoods, and will allow for development of what will become prime real estate along the lakefront boulevard to provide much-needed income and property tax revenues to the city. Less project-oriented progress has been made in terms of materials, education and policy, landscape, and the ecological environment.

Despite the successful completion of the plan and the start of implementation, it should be noted that the entire lakefront planning process was characterized by some degree of controversy. The mayor often heard criticism from many in the city's political leadership that the city should be focused on jobs and schools, not planning for the next 50 years on the lakefront. Many commuters and in-town residents rallied against conversion of the shoreline highway, expressing a preference for the "quick trip" downtown over the boulevard approach. The lakefront planning process stimulated the traditional political/economic coalitions in the city to organize a successful opposition to the mayor's re-election in 2005. It remains to be seen how deeply the sustainability principles and actions identified in the lakefront plan will be implemented by the new administration, which may not accept the need for a dramatic makeover of the lakefront as a long-term economic development strategy for the city.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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