Air Pollution

This section will discuss the causes of air pollution and the early responses of countries to address the problems associated with it. These early responses will then be connected to the occurrence of transborder air pollution. Acid deposition that was discovered and linked with transborder air pollution will then be discussed.

4.2.1 Causes

Historically, the causes of transborder air pollution have ranged from volcanic eruption to forest fires. In recent decades, the main source of air pollution in developed countries has been the direct result of increased production within industrialized nations [3]. Industrial air pollution has been facilitated in part by increased industrial output due to globalization [4,5].

Since the 1970s, air quality standards developed by the United States have been adopted by developed nations worldwide. The initial response by industries to air quality regulation was to build tall smoke stacks so that ambient air quality in the area of the polluting facility met standards imposed by regulations. This practice, known as the "tall smoke stack policy," did reduce the pollutants in the immediate area [3]. It did not take long for communities to become aware that this practice was causing the deposition of air pollutions far from the source of emission. Often this deposition was acidic and is now referred to as acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain.

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