Globalization and the Environment

Conceptualizing NGO Growth

The past 30 years have seen rapid growth in the activities and awareness of organizations in the nonprofit sector. The rise of these organizations reflects a shift during the 20th century of non-state actors and their roles within the global discourse. At the beginning of the 20th century, the relevance of nongovernmental agencies within global political and policy arenas is evidenced by the lack of mention of them in the League of Nation's charter. They simply were not thought of as...

Hamilton Ontario Canada

Hamilton sits at the extreme western tip of Lake Ontario on Hamilton Harbour, which is separated from the lake by a sand bar that was cut by a shipping canal in the mid-19th century. Today Hamilton is a city of several hundred thousand, and has the largest single concentration of steel mills in Canada. The commercial and industrial legacy of the city resulted in Hamilton Harbour's designation as an Area of Concern (AOC) by the International Joint Commission in the mid-1980s. The promotion of a...

EU Involvement

The European Community (after 1992, styled the EU) became deeply interested in global warming in 1988 following the conference in Toronto. The Commission's environmental staff prepared a report for the Council meeting that November that suggested the EC take a leadership role. It seemed important to move forward without waiting endlessly for more scientific evidence. It was a no regrets strategy, that is, at a minimum doing enough to prevent a permanent problem. The plan was to put a tax on...

Brief History of Desertification

Again like globalization, desertification is not necessarily a new phenomenon. Humankind has had a stake in the availability and accessibility of arable land and pastures ever since it started to cultivate crops and to herd livestock. Arguably, then, processes of anthropogenic land degradation are just as old. In fact, anecdotal evidence for an early human awareness of desertification is dispersed throughout literature. Plato is said to have deplored the vanishing of fertile soil in ancient...

Yucca Mountain

This will always be a controversial program. It always will be. Even after it's done. Paul Golan, Acting Director, U.S. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management 21 Long ago, each city or village managed its own energy sources and its own waste stream, since all consumption and pollution was local. The modern era post-consumption waste stream has changed dramatically. In a pre-industrial society, trash degrades rapidly. Modern and ancient society equally share a propensity to move waste...

References

Department of Energy, DOE to send proposed Yucca Mountain legislation to Congress, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Public Affairs, Washington DC, 2006. Available at http www.energy.gov print 3428.htm, accessed on April 4, 2006. 2. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Radioactive waste Production, storage, disposal, (NUREG BR-0216. Rev. 2), 2002, 16, Available at http www.nrc.gov (accessed on April 4, 2006). 3. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, Office of...

Role of the Government

In general, underdevelopment is associated with insufficient knowledge about both technology and attributes 30 . Examples of technical knowledge (know-how) are software engineering, accountancy, and nutrition. Unequal distribution of know-how between countries and within countries creates knowledge gaps. Knowledge about attributes, such as the quality of a product, the diligence of a worker, or the creditworthiness of a firm, is crucial to effective markets. Incomplete knowledge of attributes,...

Question Framing

Question-framing is arguably the most important, and the least considered, part of the decision process. Asking the right question is crucial to constructing a problem definition 30 . When dealing with science-intensive decision situations, there are two interrelated sets of questions that need to be defined what are the specific problems being addressed, and what are the relevant scientific research questions that need to be tackled The two question sets are different, and I discuss them...

Table of Contents

1 Globalization and the Environment an Introduction 1 Khi V. Thai, Dianne Rahm, and Jerrell D. Coggburn 1.1 Overview 1 1.1.1 The Conceptual Meaning of Globalization 2 1.1.2 Perspectives on Sustainable Economic Growth 2 1.1.3 Globalization, the Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth 2 1.1.3.1 Globalization and Sustainable Economic Growth 3 1.1.3.2 Globalization and a Sustainable Environment 4 1.2 Book Contents 5 1.2.1 Part One Global Environmental Issues and Policies 5 1.2.2 Part Two...

Managed Governance Anarchy versus Rule Based Order

Globalization is a word that encapsulates a number of different processes. Although the literature includes a vast number of definitions for the term 15,16 , I prefer to refer to two pathways of globalization 17 . One is governed or managed globalization. This includes the processes of international policy and law making at the global level, or what some refer to as institutional change. The other is the process of spontaneous globalization. This includes the spread of the Internet and the...

The Political Globalization of Desertification

The issue of desertification eventually entered the arena of international politics in 1973, following a particularly severe drought and ensuing famine in the Sahel region (1968-1973). As an immediate response, several countries of the Sahel region stepped up their cooperative efforts by establishing an Inter-State Permanent Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel, to which the United Nations duly responded with the creation of a Sudano-Sahelian Office. Soon thereafter the United Nations...

UN to National Level

17.4.1.1 U.N. to U.K. and Concerning EU In November 2001, the United Kingdom established an interdepartmental Sustainable Procurement Group (SPG) 23 , arguably in response to developments at the intergovernmental level such as the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development's (CSD10) 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development stated that relevant authorities at all levels should promote public procurement policies that encourage development and...

Legal and Physical Setting Background

In the fall of 1997, Steelhead were listed as endangered in the Upper Columbia River Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The listing was the 6th anadromous fish listing to occur in the Northwest Region in the previous 7 years, with 10 other stocks then still under review. In the period 1991-1997, fish protection enforcement activities had focused on addressing take* actions through traditional means (e.g., close monitoring of recreational and commercial fishing in the Snake and Columbia...

The Methow Valley Background

The Upper Columbia River ESU featured endangered Steelhead and spring-run Chinook. As of September 1999, the Central Valley of California and the Upper Columbia were the only West Coast basins to contain two listed salmonid species. With regard to enforcement challenges, the Methow Valley in Okanogan County was one of only two areas within the Northwest Region where the taking of listed fish was strictly prohibited 25,26 . In the summer of 1998, OLE began meeting with WDFW counterparts to...

Bariloche-report United Nations

UN Charter, Charter of the United Nations, San Francisco 26 June 1945, and amended on 17 December 1963, 20 December 1965 and 20 December 1971, ICJ Acts and Documents No. 4, 1945. 2. Wallerstein, I., Utopistics Or, Historical Choices of the Twenty-First Century, The New Press, New York, 1998. 3. Meyer, J.W., The World Polity and the Authority of the Nation-State, in Studies of the Modern World-System, A. Bergesen, Ed., Academic Press, New York, 1980, 109-137. 4. Meyer, J.W., Boli, J., Thomas,...

Green Procurement in US State and Local Governments

The federal government has not acted alone, nor necessarily as the leader, in environmentally friendly procurement in the U.S. It is actually America's subnational governments that have led the way in green procurement development, thus living up to their reputation as laboratories of democracy in policy innovation. Beginning in the late 1980s and early 1990s, subnational governments initiated a number of pioneering efforts in green procurement. These early pioneers 5 included, among others,...

Sustainable or Green Procurement

Without a doubt, governments are big spenders and hence have a profound effect on people and the environment. Like most governments, the U.S. federal government has adopted various procurement codes which aim to ensure interested parties access, fairness and value while also providing guidance and redress. However, to date, few procurement codes account for the environmental impact of government procurement. Those codes that do account for environmental impact are often referred to as green...

The Climate Change Regime Mix of Direct and Indirect Trade Restrictions

The climate change regime, i.e., the 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol, can collide with WTO law in a number of aspects. First of all and similar to the aforementioned agreements, the Kyoto Protocol confines the trade in particular products but unlike other MEAs which affect existing goods, the Kyoto Protocol, in its Article 17, introduces the very products it regulates. These emissions or Parts of Assigned Amounts PAAs shall only be traded within certain...

Conclusion

In the beginning of this chapter, we cited a passage from Jared Diamond's recent book Collapse How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed 1 concerning the massive increase in global environmental awareness at the same time we are facing massive global environmental problems. This poses the question on the utility of environmental awareness and learning if it does not lead to sustainable behaviors and lifestyles. Similarly, the UN World Youth Report 2003 states that 56 Environmental education has...

Desertification and Global Interdependence

Considering that most historical examples of desertification, as well as recent ones, typically relate to local occurrences of dryland degradation, it would appear that the phenomenon is global merely in the sense that it can be observed all around the world. Moreover, there is considerable regional variation in the causes, appearance, and consequences of aridity. For instance, geographers distinguish four basic categories of deserts according to the dryland zones where they are found. These...

Stevis Bruyninckx

Keohane, R.O. and Nye, J.S., Globalization What's new What's not and so what , Foreign Policy, 118, 104, 2000. 2. Kutting, G. and Rose, S., The environment as a global issue, in International Environmental Politics, M.M. Betsill, K. Hochstetler, and D. Stevis, Eds., Macmil-lan Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2005, 113-141. 3. Robertson, R. and Scholte, J.A. Eds., Encyclopedia of Globalization, Routledge, London, forthcoming. 4. Prakash, A. and Hart, J.A., Globalization and governance An introduction,...

Increasing Institutional Overlap and Conflict among International Institutions

At first glance, one might wonder about the widespread existence of legal conflicts between international trade and environmental agreements, especially among those which have been negotiated and adopted by nearly identical parties. At second glance, however, the counterintuitive observation of international regime overlap or even regime conflict should not come as a total surprise for particularly two reasons. First of all, since the end of World War II, international relations have been...

Balance of Payments Equilibrium Condition

BP equilibrium requires that total receipts R from exports X and capital inflows K be equal to imports M, i.e. where K nominal value of capital inflow. Taking total differential of PXCK and of PME, we obtain X dP C P dX C dK ME dP C PE dM C PM dE 23.7 Dividing the LHS of 23.2 by R and the RHS by PME, we have 6p C Ox C l-O k z p c m C e 23-9 where 0 share of export in total receipt to pay for import, i.e., 0 PX R 1 0 share of capital inflow in total receipt, i.e., 1 0 1 PX R K R k percent change...

Post Apartheid South Africa

Within the African continent, the issue of environmental justice is not restricted to the country of Nigeria. On August 27, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa more than three hundred environmental justice leaders from around the world gathered for the Environmental Justice Forum 46 . This forum was sponsored by the South African-based Environmental Justice Networking Forum (EJNF) and served as the pre-summit opener of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) and the Global People's...

Increased Participation Diversity through Inclusion

Second, global environmental governance departs from international politics because of the degree of participation by different actors that were earlier confined to the national sphere. The Westphalian system of international politics was characterized as politics among states. Non-state actors were either nonexistent or lacked sufficient power to influence affairs beyond territorial borders. There have been exceptions such as the Catholic Church with its highly centralized system of authority...

State of Global Environmental Awareness

Just what is the extent of global environmental awareness What level of EE is needed in developing, post-Communist and postindustrial countries To begin this discussion of the extent of environmental awareness and knowledge in the world, there are those who argue from a world society or world polity perspective that environmental concern and action is a worldwide phenomenon with almost all nations and people embracing the need for environmental protection 58 . These observers argue that...

Nigerias Ogoniland a Region of Contrasts

In the African country of Nigeria, the Ogoni people have struggled for control of their land since the colonial period 32 . In the late 19th century the Ogoni people staged a strong armed resistance against colonial occupation of their territory until 1908 when the region was secured by the colonial power 42 . Ogoni is an area of half a million people in the Niger Delta 43 . The Delta region produces 90 of the country's foreign earnings, making Nigeria the seventh largest producer in OPEC....

Part Three Environmental Management and Accountability

Environmental management and accountability is the theme of Part Three. Concerns over environmental degradation and environmental sustainability have pushed governments to search for new ways to combat environmental problems. Jerrell D. Coggburn and Dianne Rahm's chapter addresses one such approach green procurement. Green procurement attempts to address environmental challenges by taking advantage of a government's vast purchasing power to create strong markets for environmentally friendly...

The Physical Wealth Framework

Framework two focuses on the availability of, and access to, physical wealth. Physical wealth is defined as a combination of natural conditions, natural resources, and economics see Table 16.7 . The first component involves land resources and focuses on the richness of the area's soil and general agricultural conditions. Component two includes the availability of water Table 16.7 Physical Wealth Framework and Scoring System 5 Points Possible Per Each Component 25 Possible Points Land Resources...

Spontaneous Globalization Autonomous versus Orchestrated

Apart from the forces of managed globalization, there is spontaneous globalization globalization that occurs through market forces, technological advances and the rise of civil and uncivil society. One could argue that the so-called autonomous globalization may have both negative and positive effects. On the negative side, one can identify possibly three trends. The first is what I refer to as the tragedy of free trade. The second is the rise of vertically integrated markets and the third is a...

Introduction

The rise of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as important actors in the international arena during the latter decades of the 20th century, particularly during the 1990s, has been of increasing interest in policy arenas 1,2 . Much of the growth can be contextualized within the framework of institutionalization theories that explore the emergence and evolution of these organizations. Through activities such as providing social services, engaging in advocacy and relief operations in...

Space and the Home Planet

National Aeronautics and Space Administration is a space agency with an environmental mission. That mission was implicit in the 1960s and has become ever more explicit subsequently. Formed in 1958, NASA then and now has emphasized manned space flight and missions from Earth. But it has always had Earth as an applications emphasis via its satellites. The initial environmental application proved extraordinarily significant the weather satellite. The first weather satellite, Tiros, went up in...

The Resource Base Limited or Unlimited

Resources are seen as necessary for development. Here, too, one can distinguish between two schools of thought. There is an increasing realization worldwide among certain individuals and groups that resources are limited and that there will not be enough for everyone's greed, to paraphrase Mahatma Gandhi. There is also an increasing perception that there is a limit to how much one can dispose wastes into the atmosphere and hydrosphere without having negative environmental, social and economic...

Addressing the Variables that Affect Access

Since the major issue driving the freshwater supply problem is access, we should consider the variables that affect access. Access to clean, safe drinking water is inhibited by no less than four direct factors distance to the source, denial of access, cost, and supply and no less than two indirect factors distribution and demand. These variables are tightly woven, creating complex interdependencies where one variable is affected by change in another. For example, if the distance to the source...

Institutional Change

All human activities, including science, are essentially social in nature 14 . It is often an unpleasant shock to science students to learn that effective presentation of their results in talks and professional papers is as important (if not more so) to their careers as is the quality of the science they do. The information communicated through these peer activities is as much about the character and ability of the researchers as about the research findings. As Miller notes, social scientists...

Implications for NGOs

The Earth Summit set the stage for NGO involvement in environmental issues. The major documents that came out of the summit, The Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, established a legitimizing framework for activity related to the Summit. Each outlined specific ways that NGOs could work with actors from the public and private sectors to implement both a discourse process and actionable steps related to the environment. The Rio Summit triggered a more visible presence of NGOs in the activities of the...

Ecuadorian Environmental Negotiationsthe Actors

The government's attempts at organizing a system of protection in the context of weak political institutions, low levels of citizen trust in government and strong economic motivations to access all exploitable environmental resources have led to the emergence of a privately held system of protected areas, in addition to the state system. Both private and public efforts at conservation suffer from problems that can be linked to the economic, social, and political characteristics of Ecuador....

Policy Modifications Resulting from the Global War on Terror

In the years prior to the attacks at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, an ideologically motivated stateless organization, Al Qaeda, initiated an escalating if unconventional series of attacks. The U.S. responded to the attacks by invading Afghanistan and overthrowing the Taliban government that sponsored Al Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. While Bin Laden has not been captured, his network has been damaged. Attention has therefore shifted to states not signatories to...

Ecuadorian Environmental Politics and Management

Environmental management in Ecuador today is a result of policies pursued by central authorities that have in turn produced a convoluted structure of environmental management. One way it manifests itself is through governmental action in the form of legislation and bureaucratic structures oriented toward environmental protection and sustainable management of ecologically sensitive areas. In this vein, the government has maintained a minimally consistent profile of legislation, combined with...

Conclusion Of Environment And Globalization

Many countries are facing the transition to democracy at the same time they are being called upon to address environmental concerns. The combination of these pressures is forcing governments to take another look at the decision-making surrounding environmental issues. More commonly, for democratizing countries such as those in Latin America, the traditional manner of negotiating projects with environmental components within a closed group of elite interests is no longer seen as an acceptable...

Indicators and Targets

The development and incorporation of quantitative indicators can help to minimize the discrepancies between the intended outcomes set forth in national strategies and what is or can be realized in practice. Statistics and indicators make it easier to identify and assess trade-offs among the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of sustainable development. Indicators can be used to track progress along sustainable paths and define performance targets. They also contribute to policy...

What is a Human Right to Water

In 2003, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights released General Comment No. 15, which states .the Committee has previously recognized that water is a human right contained in article 11, paragraph 1 of the ICESCR The right should also be seen in conjunction with other rights enshrined in the International Bill of Human Rights, foremost amongst them the right to life and human dignity 2 . Thus, the General Comment took a step in the direction of explicit human rights to water....

Waterfront Growth Decline and Redevelopment in the Great Lakes Basin

The urban waterfront, be it on an ocean, lake or river, is often the symbolic door of the city, the place of entry for new citizens and the place of exit for goods that are traded through shipping. The relationship between a city and its waterfront or riverfront is shaped by the unique location and history of the city, and in this sense, each urban waterfront has its own idiosyncratic story 3 . Each waterfront is also influenced by broader economic, political, and social forces at the national...

Urban Sustainability as a Framework for Waterfront Regeneration

By 2010, more than 50 of the world's population and more than 75 of the population in the more developed economies will live in cities. The future of the planet rests on remaking urban settlements to be ecologically, economically, and socially sustainable. Urban sustainability is both an overall goal and a framework to guide decision-making. It asserts that urban areas can be healthy and viable for current populations while still maintaining resources and capital to provide for future...

Effects of Globalization on LDCs

Rapid technological advance, which drives the globalization process, pushes the production structure toward more technology-intensive products and activities. This requires countries to invest more in human capital formation so as to raise the skill level and access and absorb constantly evolving technology. The new technology will fast become old technology, shortening product life cycles. This, together with the building up of technological capability by LDCs, leads to desophistication of...

Conclusion Future Trends in Transborder Air Pollution Control

All three of the agreements mentioned above have a recurring theme. They lack a direct enforcement mechanism or body. This fact contributes the most to these regimes' failures to substantially reduce transborder air pollution. While economic leverage may seem like a viable solution to enforcement of environmental regime regulations, the reality is that member states must first become willing participants of an agreement. Connecting protectionist trade policies to environmental regimes has a...

Chicago Calumet Illinois United States

The city of Chicago was founded on Lake Michigan in 1837 on the site of an older trading fort at the mouth of the Chicago River. The name Chicago is said to derive from the Ojibwa (a First American nation) word for wild onions, which covered the low-lying areas along the riverbank 11 . Chicago grew dramatically in the late 19th century as a result of a network of canals and railroads, becoming the gateway to the upper Great Plains for settlement and trade. It survived a disastrous fire in 1871...

Harmonization of Procurement Codes and Sustainable Codes

Sustainable procurement stands to benefit from harmonization. In the U.S., a history exists of uniform laws and model codes that have been adopted throughout the states. Harmonization through such efforts can lead to significant efficiencies. While states may choose not to adopt uniform laws or model codes as promulgated, uniform laws and model codes often provide guidance and prompt discussion of important issues. For example, in the 1950s, a model probate code was promulgated that aimed to...

Costs Prices Product Qualities and Technological Innovations

In the global context, LDCs can be seen as peripheral countries clustering around MDCs that provide central markets to the former. Product prices are set in the central markets and those of LDCs must be lower, other things being equal, in order to compete successfully with the incumbent suppliers, who are originally located in the central markets themselves. Market price is equal to producer price plus transport and communications costs. The incumbent sellers have the advantage of zero...

Stakeholder Participation

There are numerous definitions of the terms stakeholder and participation in the literature, with foundations in the corporate 108,109 , information technology 100 , legal 111 , government 109 and social science arenas 94,95,104,110 . In order to avoid prematurely limiting their scope, the most basic definitions of both terms are used here. Thus, a stakeholder is defined as one who has a share or an interest, as in an enterprise 111 and participation is defined as the act of taking part in an...

Opportunity Provided by Globalization

Globalization confers benefits as well as costs to LDCs. Among the former are increased trade and capital flow, which enable many LDCs to improve productivity and to raise income and employment. Those countries, such as the NICs in East Asia, which can take advantage of globalization by implementing policies and establishing institutions compatible with its demands, found themselves on a faster track of economic growth. The rates of economic growth of the four East Asian economies have been...

Policy Implication of Globalization

Equation 23.24 indicates what policies are required for economic growth. The following analysis is based on the mathematical derivation presented in Appendix B. Empirical results presented in Table 23.3 show that an increase in the wage of the home country relative to the rest of the world and inflation, whether it is domestically generated or transmitted from outside, lowers the home country's output growth. Increasing returns to scale, greater capital inflow, expansion of the world economy,...

Attractiveness and Competitiveness of a Nation

A foreign investor compares the estimated rates of profit that can be generated from alternative locations, given the estimated risks and costs. He or she compares net present values of the investment projects in these locations and selects the highest. In other words, he or she compares the rates of return of these projects after setting the net present values to zero, and selects the highest rate. The annual net income of each project is the difference between total revenues and total costs....

Conclusion Assessing Governments Green Procurement Efforts

This chapter has considered green procurement as a policy tool for meeting global environmental challenges. Using examples from the U.S. federal and subnational governments, the chapter demonstrates that there is cause for both concern and optimism regarding green procurement. On the one hand, there have been numerous laws and orders promoting green procurement, but efforts to harness the purchasing power of the federal government to create and support green markets have been less than...

Impacts of Globalization Enrichment versus Impoverishment

From the above discussion, it is clear that there will typically be two divergent discourses on globalization. The main discourse is that globalization will lead to increased wealth and welfare for all countries and that this will trickle down to the poorest of the poor. Those who support globalization argue that reducing tariff barriers and opening national economies reduces the costs of goods and services while increasing the range of products and services available to local communities....

UN Politics Development versus Environment

With the establishment of the United Nations and the common expressed goal of the international community to foster economic and social prosperity worldwide, it became necessary to help the developing countries engage more effectively in the UN discussions, especially given the wide disparity in the interests of the developed and developing countries. This led to the establishment of the G-77 and China in 1964 as a caucus to help developing countries negotiate at international level. The G-77...

Evolution of Green Procurement in Federal Government

The Carter Administration ushered in the green government procurement movement with the passage of the 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RCRA . RCRA mandated that all paper purchased by the government contain 30 recycled content. It took quite a while for agencies to comply with this requirement, but by the end of the Clinton Administration, use of paper with recycled content was widespread 9 . Shortly after coming into office in the early 1990s, the Clinton administration began what...

What is Green Procurement

Before discussing green procurement, a brief discussion of procurement itself is in order. Procurement is the activity of government whereby it specified and purchases the goods and services it needs to run the government and to provide for government services. This is a sizeable operation involving local, state, and federal governments. Government can approach procurement and provision of service in two ways. The unit of government can buy the materials it needs from a vendor and then use its...

Definitions Semantics and a Common Syntax

Every discussion of eco-terrorism faces the recurrent difficulty of defining precisely what is being described. Terms such as eco-terrorism, environmental terrorism, and ecotage, are used almost interchangeably, generating confusion and misunderstanding, and sub-definitions such as impact eco-terror and ideological eco-terror 12 further complicate the lexicon. An excellent example of this confusion is found within the Encyclopedia Britannica, where ecological terrorism and environmental...

Direct Action in a Contemporary Context

One of the most interesting aspects of eco-terror is the choice of direct action tactics. While arson is typically preferred, certainly due to its destructive effect and anonymity, others tactics include property-based crimes (e.g. sabotage to equipment, vehicles, buildings, laboratories), animal liberations (e.g. from research facilities, farms), intimidation campaigns (e.g. harassing letters, telephone calls, vandalism), and direct physical violence (e.g. assault). In the wake of the...

Implications for the Future

A modern concern exists that the overlapping ideologies and tactics found among anti-globalists willing to embrace violence and those of eco-terrorists may combine to create a new, more violent version of the anti-globalist movement. This concern is a blend of two perceptions one, that violence among eco-terrorists is on the rise, both in frequency and in intensity 3,8,46-51 and two, that the anti-globalist ideology and movement are becoming increasingly intertwined with the eco-terror agenda,...

How is Nuclear Waste Categorized

Radiation is the output of a natural and spontaneous process. Radioactivity is the term describing how unstable atomic nuclei degrade. A moderate amount of radiation is part of everyday life. The exposure considered the average background or ambient radiation is quite low, about 300 millirems or 0.3 rems per year 2 . Through nuclear engineering, we create commercial and military radiological material in quantity for consumption in a controlled nuclear fission process. The development of manmade...

Defining Anti Globalism

Anti-globalists are largely defined by their opposition to capitalism, modern civilization, technology, and what they perceive as the resultant despoliation of cultures, the environment, and imperilment of human survival 11 . Sometimes described as green anarchists, this movement also tends to be defined by its tactic of direct action, including public protests and demonstrations, violence, and sabotage. Anti-globalists are not necessarily active only in developed nations. The Zapatista...

The US Environmental Framework

The U.S. environmental movement is most often depicted as beginning in the 1970s. By that decade, the environmental legacy of urbanization and industrialization was widely understood landfills were jammed with solid waste, many lakes and streams were becoming unable to support aquatic life, the state of the oceans was coming into question, urban air was choked with smog, and the negative impacts of chemicals in prominent use since the 1950s were becoming alarmingly clear. The U.S. public and...

Pollution Prevention

In an attempt to address the limitations of media-specific laws and statutes, the U.S. Congress passed the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act 20,21 . This act defines pollution prevention as source reduction of pollution, and includes any practice which, (a) reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal and (b) reduces the hazards...

Distinguishing Attributes of Nuclear Material

Radioactive waste resembles no ordinary trash. Four issues related to the nature of the material are described here contamination, toxicity, duration, and criticality. That these properties can be contained in a very small package also makes the material attractive to thieves. This idea is developed below. Containment and contamination concerns arise from emission of radioactive particles. Radioactive decay affects objects in the immediate vicinity of the radioactive material, resulting in site...

The Regulatory Framework

The management of the nuclear industry and weapons complex involves national agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the DOE, and the Department of Transportation (DOT). International agencies such as the IAEA are essential for non-proliferation. Private firms such as Envirocare and Bechtel SAIC have become increasingly important in the medium- to long-range storage of nuclear waste, part of a general trend in U.S. government toward privatization. Multinational corporations...

US Environmental Regulation Introduction

Along with diplomatic, economic, health, and social issues, many in the U.S. view the condition of our environment as a primary concern. Stories of local, regional, national, and global impacts of human activity, including the contamination of our food and water supplies, degradation of our air and soil, and the increased prevalence of environmentally influenced diseases, such as asthma, are in the * Currently affiliated with the Say brook Graduate School and Research Center, San Francisco, CA....

Part One Global Environmental Issues and Policies

Global environmental issues and policies are the subject of Part One. The term sustainable development only entered the global environmental lexicon about 20 years ago with the 1987 publication of Our Common Future by the UN's World Commission on Environmental Development. Since that time, efforts have been made to bring meaning to the term and to pursue strategies that integrate economic, environmental, and other social considerations. Ross Prizzia's chapter considers sustainable development...

The Concept of Global Environmental Governance

The concept of global governance builds on a substantial pedigree of studies that have analyzed international environmental cooperation long before, starting with the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, which led to a first wave of academic studies on intergovernmental environmental cooperation and organization 1-3 . The most relevant precursor of the concept of global governance is the debate on international environmental regimes of the 1980s and 1990s 4-7 , including the...

Cleveland Ohio United States

Founded in 1796, Cleveland is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. Both the lakefront and river valley were developed for commercial and later industrial enterprise. During the mid- and late 19th century, railroad and port facilities dotted the shoreline, as Cleveland's steel, chemical, and other heavy industries came to dominate 13,47 . Planning for Cleveland's waterfront has been, for the most part, piecemeal, narrowly focused, uncoordinated across...

Integrated Water Resources Management

Early approaches to improving access to clean, safe drinking water involved assessing the state of water resource management policies and practices around the world. The first major assessment came in 1977 at the UN Conference on Water, held in Mar del Plata, Argentina. The conference resulted in the Mar del Plata Action Plan, which assessed the worldwide state of water resources management and noted the lack of data available for the formulation of effective water resources planning. Muhammad...

Alternatives

Documents of the UN and WHO imply that a fundamental right to water is equated with what should be an explicit human right to water for all 2,3 . However, while acknowledging water as a fundamental right, other authors have outlined policy and management strategies that they argue would improve access without employing human rights language to do so. The following examples offer alternative interpretations of rights to water without neglecting the fundamental right of all people to a minimum...

Conclusions

Globalization has had a far-reaching impact, affecting the way that nations, businesses, and individuals operate on a daily basis. It has touched every part of our lives through its influence on the economy on market and trade dynamics on cultural change on governance and on natural resource management, to name just a few ways. As the world continues to become more interconnected through globalization policies, the international community becomes more intimately involved in the policies of...

The Millennium Development Goals

Farazmand, discussing trends in development administration, found the endeavor highly influenced by globalizing corporate elites, and the UN, in some respects, a tool of United States hegemony 11 . Simultaneously, however, the development profession has also become much friendlier to indigenous cultures, human rights, gender equality, and meaningful democratization. These concerns have been integrated into an international Millenium Declaration passed in the United Nations in 2000, and are now...

Implications of a Human Right to Water

Another question raised by explicit human rights to water is how are developing nations with limited economic resources to provide for minimum needs A human rights based approach to issues of water access has many implications for the financing of water resources in developing nations. Some have already turned to privatization, hoping that large, international water corporations with the capital to invest in the infrastructure can save the day. Under a human rights mandate, developing nations...

Chronological History of the Environmental Justice Movement in the United States

The first concerns about environmental justice were raised in 1971 when the Council on Environmental Quality published its annual report acknowledging that racial discrimination adversely affects urban poor and the quality of their environment 4 . This was one year after the EPA was created, the National Environmental Policy Act was passed by Congress, and the first Earth Day had been celebrated 5 . The next major event in the environmental justice movement was Bullard's 1979 study of an...

Environmental Justice Received National Recognition

Following the report by the United Church of Christ, three other major events in the environmental justice movement took place in 1990. First, Bullard published his book, Dumping in Dixie 13 , considered by many as the first textbook on environmental justice. In his book, Bullard chastised the federal government for the urban apartheid which exists in the U.S. Bullard blamed all levels of government for institutional racism and discriminatory land-use policies and practices due to their...

Contributors

German Development Institute (DIE) Bonn, Germany Duke University Durham, North Carolina Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences Levine Science Research Center Environmental Policy Analysis Vrije University Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Public Administration The University of Texas San Antonio, Texas Department of Public Administration The University of Texas San Antonio, Texas Department of Public Administration The University of Texas San Antonio, Texas Administration...

Solution under the Legal Status

The creators of the WTO did not build any comprehensive and sustainable clause into the agreements in order to address specific multilateral or domestic environmental standards. Instead of such an ex ante approach, they relied on a strategy of case-by-case interpretation. With regard to potential collisions with domestic environmental law, such an interpretation should concretize generally phrased exceptions under Article XX GATT. And as for potential collisions with MEAs, negotiators hoped for...

Stockholm Convention on the Human Environment

The report issued by the Convention on the Human Environment held in Stockholm is the foundational document and reference point for subsequent advancements toward protection of the global environment made in Rio de Janeiro and Johannesburg. Farazmand 11 describes prior UN development concerns as focusing entirely on economic development based on the model of the industrial West. Western support for UN development programs was primarily motivated by the desire to compete with Communist regimes...

Summary and Concluding Remarks

At the onset of this chapter, by listing six quite diverse hypotheses about the WTO's impact on the environment, I tried to sketch how broad the assumed * For a comprehensive discussion of different proposals in favor or against a World Environment Organization, see Biermann and Bauer (A World Environment Organization Solution or Threat for Effective International Environmental Governance 2005). scope of this impact can possibly be it ranged from optimistic expectations of a raise in...

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Rio de Janeiro

The years between 1972 and 1992 witnessed both a new institutional framework for enhancing NGO activities on global issues and critical changes in the global political environment that ultimately impacted the environmental discourse in several ways. The emergence of the institutional framework was the result of several phenomena. First, there was a growing awareness of further challenges related to environmental issues. Citizens of nations around the world were increasingly expressing interest...

Approaches to Increasing Environmental Awareness

The UN, the World Bank, national governments, various policymakers, and academics have all called for increasing environmental awareness and knowledge through education. It is seen as the cornerstone of any effort at sustainable development in all countries. However, the international contexts within which states must make environmental policy differ widely. Consequently, while there are international and regional environmental treaties to abide by as well as new desired international...

Prescriptive Thoughts

Having provided a historical, descriptive framework for exploring the development and evolution of NGO involvement vis-a-vis environmental issues, particularly in relation to the involvement of strategies in relation to the evolving UN environmental conferences, we now turn to prescriptive frameworks for developing the sector. Let us begin with an assertion that we are now at a critical juncture in both the development of the scope of roles of NGOs and the development of the scope of the...

The Editors

Thai, PhD, is professor of public administration at the Florida Atlantic University (FAU) in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Currently, he serves as director of the Public Procurement Research Center, created under a partnership agreement between FAU and the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc. His research interests are in public finance management, health care, and public procurement. He has authored or co-authored, and edited or co-edited over 80 refereed articles, book...

Introduction Global Environmental Challenges

A number of environmental challenges confront our world. Past are the days when the only worry was how nations might provide clean air and water to their own citizens. Clean air and water remain important matters, but environmental concerns now include such problems as acid precipitation, depletion of the ozone layer, greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change. These problems span national borders (thus defying any single-country solution) and are deeply complex. For several of these...

The Outer Space Treaty

Currently, the fundamental policy instrument guiding space activity is the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 34 . Its major purpose in the 1960s was for arms control. Its provisions focused on ensuring freedom of access and forestalling the exercise of national control. Outer space was treated as a global common. The treaty provides that weapons of nuclear or mass destruction may not be placed in orbit around the Earth or on celestial bodies. It limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies...

Sustainable Waterfront Development in the Great Lakes Basin

Matheny Cleveland State University Globalization has changed the economic role of cities, as each has become part of an international network 1 . The resulting structural shift to a post-industrial economy in North America has had great significance for cities in the Great Lakes region. The Great Lakes of North America are the largest system of freshwater lakes on Earth, covering 94,000 square miles, and contain roughly 18 of the world's fresh water. The lake...

Conclusion On Globalization For

The global environmental movement has paralleled a changing level of legitimization of organizations working in the nongovernmental sector. From the late 1960s to the present, we have experienced a greater degree of engagement in several environmental issues and matters. The same time period has also witnessed an explosion of organizations working in the third or nongovernmental sector. The activity related to the three UN summits examined provide a framework for examining the growing patterns...

Boundary Organizations

When the objective is decision-making that actually contributes to improved conditions, focused attention on relationship-building and careful design and facilitation of decision processes is of fundamental importance. As Bardach points out, development of trust, a problem-solving ethos, and consensus-building processes takes time, effort, skill, and a mix of constructive personalities who are around long enough to build effective relationships 58 . The skills and abilities that are required...

Objective Definitions for Sustainable in a Procurement Code

Given the aforementioned efforts at local and global levels, arriving at an objective definition for sustainable appears to be a daunting task. Further, the development of metrics is confounded by the lack of such an objective definition. Without a doubt, a sustainable procurement code should include a definition of sustainability and an explanation of how the code promotes and achieves sustainability. For example, sustainability may be applied to the need for procuring particular goods or...

Distribution Supply and Demand

Perhaps the most important variables that affect water availability on regional and global scales are distribution, supply, and demand. Global and regional climate patterns result in differential distribution of water resources over the globe and regionally. Within this climate framework exists a regional dynamic of distribution that is attributable to infrastructure. When services are not equitably distributed amongst users, access is inhibited for those outside the service area. This issue is...

Institutional Factors

Formal and informal institutions, which are called soft infrastructure as opposed to hard infrastructure like roads and telecommunications, can be established to lower information and transaction costs. This is important as transport and transaction costs tend to make up at least 40 of national output value 21 . Religious or secular institutions set up the normative rules that constrain instinctive, erratic, and opportunistic individual behavior either through legal sanctions or binding...

Political System

Our cases demonstrate that the political system that frames the planning process matters. Differences in the political system and planning function between Canada and the United States have shaped the overall planning and redevelopment procedure. In Canada, authority flows from the federal government to the provinces to the region, and to the locality. This means that official plans adopted at the provincial and regional level exert influence in determining local land use and development. The...

Intellectual

Third, in the intellectual arena, human exceptionalism assumes that humans are above the natural laws that maintain our planet. This notion permeates Western life 50 , including U.S. thought, appearing in disciplines such as environmental sociology, which presumes that human social and behavioral intervention can eradicate environmental problems 51 . In reality, the environmental interventions of human beings are imperfect. For example, Spath 29 estimates that less than 1 of pesticides actually...

Ecuadorian Environmental Negotiations the Case of Cayapas Mataje

One example of problems facing Ecuador's environmentally sensitive areas can be seen in the case of the Cayapas-Mataje region of Ecuador. In 1995 this area, located in the coastal province of Esmeraldas on the northern border with Colombia, was identified as a significant environmental resource and therefore eligible for protection. Environmental groups viewed the extension of reserve status to Cayapas-Mataje as one of the few remaining tools available to stop or delay the wholesale destruction...

From Stockholm to Rio Kyoto and Beyond

The 1972 Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden, attended by 113 states and representatives from 19 international organizations, was the first truly international conference devoted exclusively to environmental issues. The major tenets of this conference were the basis of the 1987 Brundtland Report, Our Common Future. It placed environmental issues on the global agenda, created a set of principles and an action plan for environmentally sound management, and led to the creation...

Viewpoints of the Relationship between Trade Liberalization and the Environment

Although there is a fear that trade liberalization will weaken the environmental regulations of countries involved in the agreement, some evidence suggests otherwise. It has been found that the majority of trade agreements have required the country with lower regulatory standards to raise its standards to meet those of the country with higher standards. This is in contrast to popular belief that a country with more stringent regulations will lower its standards in order to promote trade with...

Compliance Issues in the Walla Walla River Basin

In response to the documented take of Bull Trout in the summer of 1999, the USFWS initiated an official investigation. While this investigation was developing, a number of other Salmon recovery-related activities and events were beginning to unfold within the basin that would affect how major actors would approach key issues of ESA compliance in the Walla Walla Basin. During discussions among several of the parties, policy staff from NOAA Fisheries and USFWS clarified the top priorities for...