Conclusion

In the short term, the Methow Valley and Walla Walla Basin experiences proved highly successful in achieving legal compliance and protection for the targeted species. Both reflected attempts to use a collaborative approach. In the Methow Valley case very little support was generated for the ESA. Issues became highly polarized politically with low social capital (trust) representing a negative factor. High compliance rates were achieved, but at a high social cost. In contrast, the collaborative...

What is Green Procurement

Before discussing green procurement, a brief discussion of procurement itself is in order. Procurement is the activity of government whereby it specified and purchases the goods and services it needs to run the government and to provide for government services. This is a sizeable operation involving local, state, and federal governments. Government can approach procurement and provision of service in two ways. The unit of government can buy the materials it needs from a vendor and then use its...

References

Young, O.R., The Effectiveness of International Regimes, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999. 2. Wettestad, J., Designing effective environmental regimes The conditional keys, Global Governance, 3, 317, 2001. 3. Brimblecombe, P., Environmental acidification, in Global Atmospheric Chemical Change, C.N. Hewitt and W.T. Sturges, Eds., Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1993, 236. 4. Pacific Institute, Economic Globalization and the Environment, 2004, Available at (accessed on May 12, 2006). 5. Yale Global...

Distribution Supply and Demand

Perhaps the most important variables that affect water availability on regional and global scales are distribution, supply, and demand. Global and regional climate patterns result in differential distribution of water resources over the globe and regionally. Within this climate framework exists a regional dynamic of distribution that is attributable to infrastructure. When services are not equitably distributed amongst users, access is inhibited for those outside the service area. This issue is...

Remedies

Solutions to eco-terrorist actions have largely been premised upon traditional law enforcement tactics investigation, infiltration, arrest, and prosecution. In the U.S., the FBI has testified that increased anti-terror resources and emphasis have led to successful arrests of eco-terrorists 54 . The agency attributed its successes to its analysis experience, intelligence capabilities, and partnerships with state and local law enforcement. Notable successes include the recent arrest of six...

Conclusion Of Environment And Globalization

Many countries are facing the transition to democracy at the same time they are being called upon to address environmental concerns. The combination of these pressures is forcing governments to take another look at the decision-making surrounding environmental issues. More commonly, for democratizing countries such as those in Latin America, the traditional manner of negotiating projects with environmental components within a closed group of elite interests is no longer seen as an acceptable...

Performance Outcomes

The WUA reforms in Uzbekistan are an attempt to use local, collaborative institutions to improve both crop productivity and environmental sustainability. To get at policy performance for crops, we used 2001, a year prior to the establishment of any of the WUA institutions, and compared it to 2004, the latest year for which data was available on crop outputs, number of hectare planted, and the costs of crop production. The research team focused primarily on the Table 16.2 Sources of Data for...

Cleveland Ohio United States

Founded in 1796, Cleveland is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. Both the lakefront and river valley were developed for commercial and later industrial enterprise. During the mid- and late 19th century, railroad and port facilities dotted the shoreline, as Cleveland's steel, chemical, and other heavy industries came to dominate 13,47 . Planning for Cleveland's waterfront has been, for the most part, piecemeal, narrowly focused, uncoordinated across...

Addressing the Variables that Affect Access

Since the major issue driving the freshwater supply problem is access, we should consider the variables that affect access. Access to clean, safe drinking water is inhibited by no less than four direct factors distance to the source, denial of access, cost, and supply and no less than two indirect factors distribution and demand. These variables are tightly woven, creating complex interdependencies where one variable is affected by change in another. For example, if the distance to the source...

Analysis and Assessments

Sound analysis and ongoing assessments that utilize existing tools and data, including environmental assessments, cost-benefit analyses, and accounting frameworks play crucial roles in providing information on changing economic, environmental, and social conditions, pressures and responses, and their correlations with strategy objectives and indicators. In the evaluation process, those underlying trade-offs among economic, environmental, and social objectives are identified that can assist in...

Annex I

RIO DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, * Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.73.II.A.14 and corrigendum), chap. I. This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document in...

Appendix A

We wish to estimate the Verdoorn coefficient 1 in Equation 23.17. 1 is the coefficient that relates the growth of productivity to output growth. It represents the rate of productivity growth caused by output growth. If 1 0.5, it means that productivity growth is half of output growth. The procedure of estimating 1 is as follows. The first difference of log of GDP per capita (YPC) was regressed on the first difference of log of MVA for five groups of countries low income countries (1960-2003),...

Appendix A Warnings across Millennia

Suggested site warnings from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Artist's conception of one of the large warning monuments that also serve as information centers on the crest of Yucca Mountain after permanent closure of the proposed geologic repository.

Appendix C Levels and Sources of Outside Help

All WUA farmer members were asked Question 91 of the Uzbekistan Washington State University Tashkent Institute for Irrigation and Melioration WUAs Research Survey. In cases where outside help occurred, respondents were then skipped to a more specific question such as Question 92 below in order to elicit the significance of each source of outside help. As indicated by the Q91 skip patterns, Questions 93 through 98 covered the listed sources of outside help. The subsequent questions were...

Approaches to Increasing Environmental Awareness

The UN, the World Bank, national governments, various policymakers, and academics have all called for increasing environmental awareness and knowledge through education. It is seen as the cornerstone of any effort at sustainable development in all countries. However, the international contexts within which states must make environmental policy differ widely. Consequently, while there are international and regional environmental treaties to abide by as well as new desired international...

Attractiveness and Competitiveness of a Nation

A foreign investor compares the estimated rates of profit that can be generated from alternative locations, given the estimated risks and costs. He or she compares net present values of the investment projects in these locations and selects the highest. In other words, he or she compares the rates of return of these projects after setting the net present values to zero, and selects the highest rate. The annual net income of each project is the difference between total revenues and total costs....

Better Alignment

Systems theory posits that alignment of function and structure, or syntony, should be considered a system's strength 90 . The EMS approach achieves alignment within smaller units of the larger system, focusing on one regulated entity at a time. Taking a multi-media and a cradle-to-cradle approach, products are manufactured and services delivered with a minimum of waste and resource consumption, as well as a focus on eco-friendly materials. Thus, the actions of the worker at the lowest...

Beyond

Issues in the beyond category vary with one's imagination. However, at this point in history, the most significant beyond issue that has attracted policy attention is asteroids. Most of the attention is speculative, but it is about important matters, nonetheless 40 . One aspect is the mining of asteroids for resources of one kind or another. Such a possibility was discussed in the 1970s and early 1980s when energy and other mineral resource scarcities were experienced or anticipated. Space...

Beyond the Earth Summit

The increasing pace of globalization demands international attention to equalizing its effects by raising the living standards of the poor. Policies for sustainable, equitable, and democratic growth are critical for global and local environments, and they will require a change in institutions and mind-sets 2 . These are exciting times for the world and the United Nations. Programs within its agencies and the burgeoning number of civil society organizations are being steered toward the consensus...

Brundtland Report

Between 1972 and 1987, the developed nations evolved sets of pollution control and natural resource protection regimes. The oil crisis of the early 1970s led to the exploration of alternative energy production, consumption, and land use patterns. Chemical and nuclear accidents such as Love Canal, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, and Chernobyl raised public concerns and led to stricter controls on chemical and nuclear production and waste disposal. At the same time, leaders of the developing countries...

Cases on Human Health Issues Risk Assessment Prior Informed Consent and Labeling Requirements

The EC Asbestos report of April, 2001 is a good example of the Appellate Body's slowly emerging openness toward environmental law. In this report, the AB overruled the previous Panel decision about the essential similarity of asbestos products, regardless of their health effects. Canada, one of the world's biggest exporters of asbestos, had appealed to the WTO due to French import bans, induced by national working and consumption law, on asbestos fibers and asbestos-containing products. While...

Cases on Issues of Species Protection and Biological Diversity Direct Import Restrictions

The first noteworthy judicially manifest conflict between domestic environmental law and international trade law was the Tuna Dolphin case, or U.S. Tuna I. It was brought before the GATT Panel in 1991, more than three years before the establishment of the WTO. Mexico had complained about U.S. import bans on yellow fin tuna being harvested with purse seine driftnets by Mexican ships in the Eastern Pacific. The justification for these import bans was rooted in the 1972 U.S. Marine Mammal...

Challenges Facing Green Procurement

As is the case with every government policy, green procurement faces a number of challenges to successful implementation. Given the partisan dynamics that surround any governmental program, green procurement will always face political challenges. In certain political circles, the mere word green can conjure up images of environmental extremism. In the case of green procurement, such images would seem to be unwarranted. Indeed, there is some evidence that green procurement has become a...

Chicago Calumet Illinois United States

The city of Chicago was founded on Lake Michigan in 1837 on the site of an older trading fort at the mouth of the Chicago River. The name Chicago is said to derive from the Ojibwa (a First American nation) word for wild onions, which covered the low-lying areas along the riverbank 11 . Chicago grew dramatically in the late 19th century as a result of a network of canals and railroads, becoming the gateway to the upper Great Plains for settlement and trade. It survived a disastrous fire in 1871...

Chronological History of the Environmental Justice Movement in the United States

The first concerns about environmental justice were raised in 1971 when the Council on Environmental Quality published its annual report acknowledging that racial discrimination adversely affects urban poor and the quality of their environment 4 . This was one year after the EPA was created, the National Environmental Policy Act was passed by Congress, and the first Earth Day had been celebrated 5 . The next major event in the environmental justice movement was Bullard's 1979 study of an...

Citizen Perceptions of Good Faith Bargaining

Each survey participant was asked to provide answers to the question What is your impression of the 'Good Faith Bargaining' exhibited by the major actors involved in the salmon recovery process The responses to this question illustrate the major differences in public perceptions between the Methow Valley watershed and Walla Walla River Basin. Important to note in connection from the Methow Valley case, especially as compared to the Walla Walla case, are three significant observations First,...

Climate Change Treaty Structure

In 1992, the United Nations sponsored the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, where 160 nations signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Seven years earlier, at a technical workshop in Villach, Austria, the scientific consensus had established with certainty that the earth was warming, and that greenhouse gases were the cause, the primary gas being carbon dioxide. Only three years later, 340 scientists and government officials meeting in Toronto recommended a solution. First and foremost,...

Commission on Sustainable Development

The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was formed by the UN General Assembly to ensure implementation of the agreements made in Rio de Janeiro. The CSD conducts annual reviews of the implementation of Agenda 21 and works to support governments, businesses and NGOs in their efforts to promote and achieve sustainable development. It relies primarily on reports submitted by governments and on meetings held among parties seeking to work together. The CSD's establishment following Rio was...

Complex and Contentious Problems

Coupled social and ecological systems (SES) are complex and adaptive. Conditions in such systems are the products of countless processes that operate simultaneously at a range of scales on innumerable individual elements (people, plants, animals, water, etc.). Processes commonly are non-linear, meaning that equal amounts of stress or disturbance can produce very different amounts of response feedback relations and lagged responses contribute additional unpredictability. Events affecting an SES...

Compliance in the Walla Walla Basin Cooperation Rather than Confrontation

In January 1999, the WDFW Enforcement Program began evaluating the issue of compliance with state fish screening laws within the Washington portion of the basin. Preliminary information indicated that little to no enforcement activity involving fish screens had occurred over the course of several decades. Records regarding the number and type of surface water diversions, and ownership and compliance rates were virtually non-existent. Although existing diversions were required to operate with...

Conclusion Future Trends in Transborder Air Pollution Control

All three of the agreements mentioned above have a recurring theme. They lack a direct enforcement mechanism or body. This fact contributes the most to these regimes' failures to substantially reduce transborder air pollution. While economic leverage may seem like a viable solution to enforcement of environmental regime regulations, the reality is that member states must first become willing participants of an agreement. Connecting protectionist trade policies to environmental regimes has a...

Conclusion No Dispute No Problem

All in all, what can be said about the impact of inter-regime conflicts At first glance, there is good news for the involved MEAs unlike the cases of incoherence among domestic environmental law and WTO law (presented in Section 10.3), none of these legal conflicts has so far become manifest in a legal controversy among (non-)member states of the respective treaties.* As possible explanations for this absence of WTO disputes, Werksman 46 names (1) the self-restraint of parties, which prompts...

Conclusion the WTO is Taking Over

Summarizing the major implications of the abovementioned and some further cases, three major sets of observations can be made. First, with regard to extent and quantity, the WTO has definitely been assuming considerable competency and power about numerous non-trade issues 31 . Through decisions on various environmental topics, from species protection via air pollution (namely in the U.S.-Reformulated Gasoline report) to consumer and health standards, the WTO Dispute Settlement Body has...

Conflicts between WTO Law and Domestic Environmental

Given the numerous domestic laws which rely on trade measures in order to enforce environmental protection, there is abundant potential for collisions * Originally, deadlines for the introduction of such systems were 2000 and 2005, respectively, but at the Doha ministerial meeting, the deadline for least developed countries was extended until 2016. 1 The WTO itself names the Agreement on Agriculture and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM) as further treaties with...

Coordination and Institutions

Achieving sustainable development depends heavily on high-level political commitment, well-functioning government institutions, and overcoming coordination failures in public policies. Involving and coordinating a wide range of government departments compel strategists to take a broad view of issues, give voice to a range of dispersed interests, and develop trade-offs across policy areas. However, more important than all-inclusiveness is placement of responsibility for overseeing the different...

Costs Prices Product Qualities and Technological Innovations

In the global context, LDCs can be seen as peripheral countries clustering around MDCs that provide central markets to the former. Product prices are set in the central markets and those of LDCs must be lower, other things being equal, in order to compete successfully with the incumbent suppliers, who are originally located in the central markets themselves. Market price is equal to producer price plus transport and communications costs. The incumbent sellers have the advantage of zero...

Decreased Resistance

Systems interventions are most successful when the energy in the system is harnessed, rather than suppressed 92,93 . By tapping into production at the source, an EMS modifies the behavior of the economic system in important two ways. First, it redirects the treadmill of production that drives the capitalist economy, moving it to reduce toxicity and waste and to focus, instead, on using renewable resources. Second, by making more eco-friendly products available, it provides an infrastructure for...

Defining Anti Globalism

Anti-globalists are largely defined by their opposition to capitalism, modern civilization, technology, and what they perceive as the resultant despoliation of cultures, the environment, and imperilment of human survival 11 . Sometimes described as green anarchists, this movement also tends to be defined by its tactic of direct action, including public protests and demonstrations, violence, and sabotage. Anti-globalists are not necessarily active only in developed nations. The Zapatista...

Desertification as a Global Issue

A glance at the plethora of definitions that seek to capture the essence of desertification is helpful to underscore just how contested the concept of desertification remains to this day in the fora of public policy as well as in academic circles 5-10 . Far more than one hundred definitions are dispersed throughout the literature of the natural and social sciences, thereby reflecting the prevalent taxonomic confusion as much as promoting it 11 . Much of the current debates about what...

Ecuador

In comparison to Mexico, countries such as Ecuador retain a weaker hold on democracy, and progress toward democratic consolidation seems to be primarily focused on emerging pluralism in the context of fragile political institutions 34-36 . Within Ecuador, the emergence of numerous interest groups acting in the political system has not necessarily diversified the strata of elites who have historically retained political control. As a result, the executive branch continues to make many of...

Ecuadorian Environmental Negotiationsthe Actors

The government's attempts at organizing a system of protection in the context of weak political institutions, low levels of citizen trust in government and strong economic motivations to access all exploitable environmental resources have led to the emergence of a privately held system of protected areas, in addition to the state system. Both private and public efforts at conservation suffer from problems that can be linked to the economic, social, and political characteristics of Ecuador....

Ecuadorian Environmental Politics and Management

Environmental management in Ecuador today is a result of policies pursued by central authorities that have in turn produced a convoluted structure of environmental management. One way it manifests itself is through governmental action in the form of legislation and bureaucratic structures oriented toward environmental protection and sustainable management of ecologically sensitive areas. In this vein, the government has maintained a minimally consistent profile of legislation, combined with...

Effects of Globalization on LDCs

Rapid technological advance, which drives the globalization process, pushes the production structure toward more technology-intensive products and activities. This requires countries to invest more in human capital formation so as to raise the skill level and access and absorb constantly evolving technology. The new technology will fast become old technology, shortening product life cycles. This, together with the building up of technological capability by LDCs, leads to desophistication of...

Enhanced Use of Information

By improving information flows and links, the content and timing of data reports, and by shortening feedback loops, systems' responsiveness can be enhanced 28,93 . Moving both the source and the use of data in-house makes data more readily available to decision-makers, and helps to allay concerns or suspicions about data validity 56,94,95 . Further, by internalizing the costs of pollution cleanup and prevention into the cost of business, both producers and consumers of goods can calculate more...

Environmental and Political Values

Respondents' environmental attitudes were documented using responses to four statements taken from the Dunlap New Environmental Paradigm Scale 33 . This multi-item attitude scale, which has been used in numerous studies over the years, asks survey respondents to agree or to disagree with the following four controversial value statements concerning the environment Plants and animals are primarily for human use. Mankind was created to rule over nature. Humans have an ethical obligation to protect...

Environmental Consequence of Growth

Evidence shows that industrialization, at least during the take-off and maturity stages using Rostow's description for lack of a better term brings with it declining environmental quality. A conspicuous example is China, whose growth is one of the fastest in the world. Polluting industries, most of which are located in densely populated urban areas, are responsible for over 70 of the national emission of particulates, sulphur oxide, and organic water pollution 40 . According to the 2005 Report...

Environmental Justice Received National Recognition

Following the report by the United Church of Christ, three other major events in the environmental justice movement took place in 1990. First, Bullard published his book, Dumping in Dixie 13 , considered by many as the first textbook on environmental justice. In his book, Bullard chastised the federal government for the urban apartheid which exists in the U.S. Bullard blamed all levels of government for institutional racism and discriminatory land-use policies and practices due to their...

EU Involvement

The European Community (after 1992, styled the EU) became deeply interested in global warming in 1988 following the conference in Toronto. The Commission's environmental staff prepared a report for the Council meeting that November that suggested the EC take a leadership role. It seemed important to move forward without waiting endlessly for more scientific evidence. It was a no regrets strategy, that is, at a minimum doing enough to prevent a permanent problem. The plan was to put a tax on...

Example the Mirra Chain and Aluminum

McDonough and Braungart present an argument for using local materials for sustainable design wherein they state that use of local materials opens the doors to profitable local enterprise and avoids problems of bioinvasion, citing the Herman Miller factory as an example 29 . However, when it comes to shippable sustainable products, Herman Miller's Mirra chair serves as an example. The Mirra chair is designed to accommodate 95 of the world's population and to be up to 96 recycled. The chair...

Formal Institutions form and Function

The formal institutions framework focuses on the degree to which formal institutions are present. The expectation of this thesis, which accords with the * In converting the productivity numbers to the new scale, we assigned the highest score (2.489 for Berdakh) the same weighting of 93.9 as the highest scoring WUA on the environmental sustainability scale. This meant our nominal scale ranged from a high of 2.65 down to zero. WUA productivity scores were divided by the 2.65 high score to produce...

Globalization the Environment and Sustainable Economic Growth

Will globalization lead to a sustainable environment and a sustainable economy Researchers have disagreed on the various and multiple impacts of globalization on the environment and on economic growth. 1.1.3.1 Globalization and Sustainable Economic Growth According to Matteis 8 , globalization will have both positive and negative consequences with respect to sustainable economic growth. The positive aspects of trade liberalization in a global marketplace include competition, increased...

Government Spending

Executive Order 13101, issued by President Clinton in 1998, carried the title Greening the Government through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition 1 . Senate Bill 3271, entitled the Greening the Government Act of 2000, was submitted in response to Executive Order 13101 and recognized that the Federal government has a tremendous opportunity to use its more that 200 billion in annual purchasing power to improve the environment 2 . More perplexing is how to make more than 30...

Growth as a Challenge to Sustainable Development

Evidence to the contrary has not dispelled the perception that the environment is a luxury good that can be demanded as incomes rise with economic growth. As a result, developing countries tend to ignore environmental concerns as policymakers focus almost exclusively on accelerating economic growth. By doing so, they ignore the potential enormity of economic, social, and ecological costs and the reality that sometimes the damage incurred is irreversible. For example, while air and water...

Hamilton Ontario Canada

Hamilton sits at the extreme western tip of Lake Ontario on Hamilton Harbour, which is separated from the lake by a sand bar that was cut by a shipping canal in the mid-19th century. Today Hamilton is a city of several hundred thousand, and has the largest single concentration of steel mills in Canada. The commercial and industrial legacy of the city resulted in Hamilton Harbour's designation as an Area of Concern (AOC) by the International Joint Commission in the mid-1980s. The promotion of a...

Implementation through a Procurement Code

The fact that many governments are now pondering sustainability issues may demonstrate that a shift has occurred in the traditional human-centric definition of community. While the shift may arguably embrace Leopold's philosophy or other environmental philosophies, some explanations may simply point to common sense, fairness, hard economics, etc. For most governments, a thread may be established leading from a core reason to a present desire for sustainable practices and even sustainable...

Implications for NGOs

The Earth Summit set the stage for NGO involvement in environmental issues. The major documents that came out of the summit, The Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, established a legitimizing framework for activity related to the Summit. Each outlined specific ways that NGOs could work with actors from the public and private sectors to implement both a discourse process and actionable steps related to the environment. The Rio Summit triggered a more visible presence of NGOs in the activities of the...

Implications for the Future

A modern concern exists that the overlapping ideologies and tactics found among anti-globalists willing to embrace violence and those of eco-terrorists may combine to create a new, more violent version of the anti-globalist movement. This concern is a blend of two perceptions one, that violence among eco-terrorists is on the rise, both in frequency and in intensity 3,8,46-51 and two, that the anti-globalist ideology and movement are becoming increasingly intertwined with the eco-terror agenda,...

Increased Participation Diversity through Inclusion

Second, global environmental governance departs from international politics because of the degree of participation by different actors that were earlier confined to the national sphere. The Westphalian system of international politics was characterized as politics among states. Non-state actors were either nonexistent or lacked sufficient power to influence affairs beyond territorial borders. There have been exceptions such as the Catholic Church with its highly centralized system of authority...

Increased Segmentation Complexity through Fragmentation

Global environmental governance is marked, first, by a new segmentation of policy-making, both vertically (multilevel governance) and horizontally (multipolar governance). The increasing institutionalization of world politics at the global level does not occur, and is indeed not conceivable, without continuing policy-making at national and subnational levels. Global standards need to be implemented and put into practice at the local level, and global norm-setting requires local decision-making...

Indicators and Targets

The development and incorporation of quantitative indicators can help to minimize the discrepancies between the intended outcomes set forth in national strategies and what is or can be realized in practice. Statistics and indicators make it easier to identify and assess trade-offs among the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of sustainable development. Indicators can be used to track progress along sustainable paths and define performance targets. They also contribute to policy...

Inferences

The above section has argued that within the context of a globalizing world, where there is considerable difference of opinion in the scientific community, power politics operates through four mechanisms to frame issues in favor of the developed countries. The first is through the way problems are scaled up and down, the second is by virtue of the dilemmas that exist in both developed and developing countries, the third involves the practical difficulties in engaging effectively in the...

Initial Multilateral Environmental Agreements

A number of small environmental treaties were established prior to 1972, mostly dealing with hunting, fishing, and protecting wildlife and fisheries, but over 60 have been signed since the Stockholm Conference and are administered by a United Nations authority 14 . The CITES is one of the first major environmental treaties, which are also referred to as Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). Its purpose is to protect endangered species of plants and animals from over-exploitation so that...

Initiatives from the Inside

With the ubiquitous applicability of the VCLT cast in doubt, the WTO started several initiatives in order to ensure a stronger coherence among international trade rules and environmental law. In accordance with its chief mandate, the CTE took on this matter from the very start in its 1996 Report to the Singapore Ministerial Meeting, the committee recommended that disputing parties which are members in both the WTO and an MEA should first try to resolve their dispute through the MEA's...

Institutional Change

All human activities, including science, are essentially social in nature 14 . It is often an unpleasant shock to science students to learn that effective presentation of their results in talks and professional papers is as important (if not more so) to their careers as is the quality of the science they do. The information communicated through these peer activities is as much about the character and ability of the researchers as about the research findings. As Miller notes, social scientists...

Intergenerational Timeframe

In addition to balancing economic, environmental, and social objectives, a basic tenet of sustainable development mandates meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs 1 . The ever depleting stocks of assets (e.g., man-made, natural, human, and social capital) that underpin sustainable development must be preserved over time. This calls for national strategies that support intergenerational equity by setting long term...

Interim Outcomes in the Walla Walla

In the month of June of 2000, negotiations between the three irrigation districts in Oregon and Washington and the USFWS resulted in a Civil Penalty Settlement Agreement that insured a minimum instream water flow of 13 cfs1 (1 cfs equals roughly 450 gallons) in the Walla Walla River immediately below the Nursery Bridge diversion, with provisions for 10 cfs to be maintained through the Burlingame Diversion operated by the Gardena Farms Irrigation District 13. As a result of this agreement, in...

Introduction

Beginning in the 1960s, federal and state agencies in a variety of regulatory policy areas have adopted what some have called a strict-compliance deterrence or penal punitive style of enforcement 1 5 . This approach is characterized by a reliance on formal, precise, and specific rules the literal interpretation of the rules the (primary) reliance on the advice of legal technicians (attorneys) the quest for uniformity and the distrust of and an adversarial orientation towards the regulated 6 ....

Khi V Thai

6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper International Standard Book Number-10 1-57444-553-7 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13 978-1-57444-553-4 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted...

Legal and Physical Setting Background

In the fall of 1997, Steelhead were listed as endangered in the Upper Columbia River Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The listing was the 6th anadromous fish listing to occur in the Northwest Region in the previous 7 years, with 10 other stocks then still under review. In the period 1991-1997, fish protection enforcement activities had focused on addressing take* actions through traditional means (e.g., close monitoring of recreational and commercial fishing in the Snake and Columbia...

Legislative History

The original federal laws governing air, waste, and water three primary regulated media have lengthy legislative histories. The laws regarding water regulation, for example, go back as far as 1899, and current standards for safe drinking water were derived from laws enacted in 1974 and 1976 1 . Some experts consider the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act of 1970 to be the trigger for our current improved air quality 2 , even though the Clean Air Act of 1990 now receives more official...

Managed Governance Anarchy versus Rule Based Order

Globalization is a word that encapsulates a number of different processes. Although the literature includes a vast number of definitions for the term 15,16 , I prefer to refer to two pathways of globalization 17 . One is governed or managed globalization. This includes the processes of international policy and law making at the global level, or what some refer to as institutional change. The other is the process of spontaneous globalization. This includes the spread of the Internet and the...

Mexican Environmental Politics and Management

For Mexico, economic development has come at a rather high price in environmental degradation a cost that Mexico has only begun to deal with in the past 15 years. In 1988, Mexico's out-going president, Miguel de la Madrid, responded to rising public and international concern about environmental problems by revamping the national environmental laws to include greater emphasis on minimizing environmental degradation 19-21 . Madrid's successor, Carlos Salinas, further emphasized the need to...

Monitoring and Evaluation

National strategies for sustainable development are not meant to be static plans, but rather dynamic processes that evolve as more information becomes available about priorities, technological options, policy cost-effectiveness, and viable problem-solving techniques of implementation. Learning, adaptation, and continual improvement should be characteristics of national strategies. This ideally requires an external, independent agency or process to monitor the implementation of national...

National Strategies and Good Practices in OECD Countries

Most OECD countries have developed and implemented national strategies for sustainable development (NSSD) in accordance with the 1992 mandate of Agenda 21. The sustainable development strategy process offers an opportunity to build on complementary programs in the economic, environmental, and social spheres to improve the long-term effectiveness of government policy agendas. In 2001, the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) developed a set of guidelines to assist developing countries in...

Negotiation Outcomes

It is then not surprising that negotiation outcomes are both seen to favor the south as well as to marginalize its interests. Those who point to how the negotiations favor the south focus on the lack of quantitative restrictions on the south (e.g., on climate change) or the implementation of common but differentiated responsibilities which give room to the south to grow, or to the fact that the very inability of the south to come to a common position implies that no responsibilities can be...

Opportunity Provided by Globalization

Globalization confers benefits as well as costs to LDCs. Among the former are increased trade and capital flow, which enable many LDCs to improve productivity and to raise income and employment. Those countries, such as the NICs in East Asia, which can take advantage of globalization by implementing policies and establishing institutions compatible with its demands, found themselves on a faster track of economic growth. The rates of economic growth of the four East Asian economies have been...

Part Three Environmental Management and Accountability

Environmental management and accountability is the theme of Part Three. Concerns over environmental degradation and environmental sustainability have pushed governments to search for new ways to combat environmental problems. Jerrell D. Coggburn and Dianne Rahm's chapter addresses one such approach green procurement. Green procurement attempts to address environmental challenges by taking advantage of a government's vast purchasing power to create strong markets for environmentally friendly...

Participation and Privatization Institutionalizing Civil Society Involvement

A second example of a reform debate deals with the increased participation of non-state actors in global environmental governance. This participation has not been without friction. Developing countries, in particular, often object to increases in the influence of non-governmental organizations in international forums because they view these groups as being more favorable to northern agendas, perspectives and interests. Developing countries argue that most associations are headquartered in...

Policy Implication of Globalization

Equation 23.24 indicates what policies are required for economic growth. The following analysis is based on the mathematical derivation presented in Appendix B. Empirical results presented in Table 23.3 show that an increase in the wage of the home country relative to the rest of the world and inflation, whether it is domestically generated or transmitted from outside, lowers the home country's output growth. Increasing returns to scale, greater capital inflow, expansion of the world economy,...

Policy Problems of Geosynchronous Geostationary Orbit

As noted, a special type of geosynchronous orbit is a geostationary orbit. A geostationary satellite stays over the same point on the surface of the Earth at all times. While all geostationary orbits must be geosynchronous, not all geosynchronous orbits are geostationary. Unlike all other classes of orbits, there is only one geostationary orbit. The advantage of a satellite in a geostationary orbit is that it remains fixed relative to the Earth's surface. This makes it an ideal orbit for...

Political System

Our cases demonstrate that the political system that frames the planning process matters. Differences in the political system and planning function between Canada and the United States have shaped the overall planning and redevelopment procedure. In Canada, authority flows from the federal government to the provinces to the region, and to the locality. This means that official plans adopted at the provincial and regional level exert influence in determining local land use and development. The...

Pollution Prevention

In an attempt to address the limitations of media-specific laws and statutes, the U.S. Congress passed the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act 20,21 . This act defines pollution prevention as source reduction of pollution, and includes any practice which, (a) reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal and (b) reduces the hazards...

Process Design Considerations

Successful implementation of an adaptive and collaborative process for making and implementing policy requires careful attention to process design. A poorly designed project will almost always fail 64 a carefully thought-out and agreed-upon procedural framework is a necessary prerequisite for substantive and constructive discussion and negotiation. Process design must take into account the unique dynamic of a particular situation's issues, history, technical information, players and...

Question Framing

Question-framing is arguably the most important, and the least considered, part of the decision process. Asking the right question is crucial to constructing a problem definition 30 . When dealing with science-intensive decision situations, there are two interrelated sets of questions that need to be defined what are the specific problems being addressed, and what are the relevant scientific research questions that need to be tackled The two question sets are different, and I discuss them...

Segmentation the Debate on a United Nations Environment Organization

One reform debate in the field of global environmental governance concerns the organizational and institutional fragmentation of global environmental policy. Many observers have pointed to the paradoxical situation that strong and powerful international bodies oriented towards economic growth such as the World Trade Organization, the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund are hardly matched by UNEP, the modest UN programme for environmental issues. The same imbalance is revealed when...

Shared Historic Experiences

In all the water and riverfront areas we have featured, historic growth of the city had resulted in extensive infill of shoreline areas for industry and port activities. These changes allowed the city to expand its economy, but destroyed most of the natural shoreline's ecological function. Likewise, transportation infrastructure, primarily railroads and then highways, separated the water from the city in all cases. In all cases, decline of industry opened up land for redevelopment, but the...

Shifting Views of Science

Humans, like other organisms, are directly and indirectly impacted by the behavior of natural systems. Unlike other organisms, humans can anticipate the potential impacts of events and take actions intended to alter those impacts 13 . These actions constitute management activities. Political-managerial systems are the mechanisms through which actions that impact SESs are designed and implemented. The behavior of political-managerial systems, like human culture and collective behavior in...

State of Global Environmental Awareness

Just what is the extent of global environmental awareness What level of EE is needed in developing, post-Communist and postindustrial countries To begin this discussion of the extent of environmental awareness and knowledge in the world, there are those who argue from a world society or world polity perspective that environmental concern and action is a worldwide phenomenon with almost all nations and people embracing the need for environmental protection 58 . These observers argue that...

Stockholm Convention on the Human Environment

The report issued by the Convention on the Human Environment held in Stockholm is the foundational document and reference point for subsequent advancements toward protection of the global environment made in Rio de Janeiro and Johannesburg. Farazmand 11 describes prior UN development concerns as focusing entirely on economic development based on the model of the industrial West. Western support for UN development programs was primarily motivated by the desire to compete with Communist regimes...

Suggestions from the Outside

In the absence of an accord within the CTE, the question of whether and how environmental aspects should be integrated into the world trade regime has mainly been taken up outside the context of the world trade regime above all, in academic and environmental institutes 16 . Generally, three groups of proposals can be distinguished a first one focusing on a reform of WTO law, a second one suggesting changes in the organizational structure, * These MEAs included the Basel Convention, the CBD,...

Summary and Concluding Remarks

At the onset of this chapter, by listing six quite diverse hypotheses about the WTO's impact on the environment, I tried to sketch how broad the assumed * For a comprehensive discussion of different proposals in favor or against a World Environment Organization, see Biermann and Bauer (A World Environment Organization Solution or Threat for Effective International Environmental Governance 2005). scope of this impact can possibly be it ranged from optimistic expectations of a raise in...

Summary and Outlook

Profound interlinkages with the global development agenda notwithstanding, desertification and dryland degradation are concepts that relate first and foremost to global environmental change. Specifically, desertification circumscribes processes of environmental degradation in the roughly 40 of the Earth's land masses that are climatically arid, semi-arid or sub-humid. Contrary to popular belief, desertification neither relates to an encroachment of existing deserts nor is it a genuine global...

Summary of Programs

Thus far, various programs have been identified from an international level to a local level ultimately, however, all, action is taken locally. An examination of this hierarchy of programs, policies, etc., may help understand how efforts by local municipalities to achieve sustainability can be carried out while keeping global realties and global efforts in mind. In particular, can sustainability be achieved in a piecemeal fashion from bottom-up, or is top-down implementation (i.e., from global...

Summary of Rio Conference

Despite the good intentions of Agenda 21 and its achievements in raising global awareness about the urgency of establishing sustainable development and modifying the consumption practices of developed countries, a variety of indicators showed that environmental conditions and the hardships faced by a large proportion of the world's population have continued to deteriorate. The UN held another gathering in 2000 that resulted in the Millenium Declaration and the consolidation of the agenda for...

Summit on Sustainable Development Johannesburg

In 1999, the UN General Assembly, recognizing the arriving tenth anniversary of the Earth Summit, called for a 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), to enable countries to review and follow-up on many of the initiatives initially orchestrated in Rio 10 years earlier. The WSSD was to be an opportunity to see what progress had been made since Rio, and an opportunity to explore new directions that should be charted for global environmental activity. In developing the designs for...

Sustainable Development in the United States

Serious consideration of sustainable development in American political practice and public policy is relatively recent. Although recognition of its importance is widespread, efforts to translate its implicit principles into political practice have been uncoordinated and inconsistent. At the federal, state, regional, and local levels, however, accumulating evidence shows that many of the ideas advocated by proponents of sustainability are being applied, often experimentally, in different policy...

The Concept of Global Environmental Governance

The concept of global governance builds on a substantial pedigree of studies that have analyzed international environmental cooperation long before, starting with the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, which led to a first wave of academic studies on intergovernmental environmental cooperation and organization 1-3 . The most relevant precursor of the concept of global governance is the debate on international environmental regimes of the 1980s and 1990s 4-7 , including the...

The Convention on Biodiversity

This convention has been more successful in gaining ratification, as 183 nations have signed on to preserve habitat and use other means to protect animal and plant species. It has since been expanded to address the risks of transboundary movement of genetically-altered organisms and biotechnology practices in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. The Johannesburg Summit took up the issue of how the benefits of genetic resources will be shared with the people of their country of origin 23 . In...

The Convention on Biological Diversity Benefit Sharing Prior Informed Consent and Labeling Requirements

The importance of the above examples notwithstanding, it is another potential incompatibility between an MEA and WTO law which has been attracting the bulk of scholarly attention, namely the overlap among the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the TRIPS Agreement. Unlike the aforementioned cases, the CBD-TRIPS conflict involves less an incompatibility of particular rules than a general programmatic conflict. The CBD reaffirms that states have sovereign rights over their own biological...

The Emerging Powers Friend or

Since the year 2000, there has been rapid economic growth in China and India. If this rate of growth continues, then these countries may have more economic and military power than many countries of the developed world, even while large proportions of their population still live in poverty. By their productive and consumptive power they will become a major force in environmental politics, and this too is a critical reason to be careful about how policies should develop in the future. Where major...