Streamflow at the Otmuchow gauging station

Exemplary the discharge from the sub-catchment Otmuchow is discussed here which contributed much to the 1997 extreme flooding event. The Otmuchow watershed covers an area of 2,361 km2 in the Sudete mountains (sub-catchment 48 in Fig. 3). Figure 5 shows the simulated and measured discharge for 1993, a year out of the calibration period. The maximum discharge in March mainly caused by snow melt is slightly overestimated (172 instead of measured 134 m3/s) but exact in time. The total volume of discharge from March 12-31 is underestimated by 10%. Some snow melt events in January and April are underestimated as well. Probably precipitation fallen as snow was not corrected for adequately. Some discrepancies also occur during two heavier precipitation events end of October and early November. The efficiency is estimated as 76%.

A similar picture is shown for the year 1997 out of the validation period (Fig. 6). Streamflow due to snow melt is underestimated (February), while

Otmuchow (Nysa Kl. Res. inflow, 2361 km2)

Calibration period 1992-94; here 1993 : ME=76%

200 180

Otmuchow (Nysa Kl. Res. inflow, 2361 km2)

Calibration period 1992-94; here 1993 : ME=76%

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Figure 5. Simulated and observed streamflow at the Otmuchow gauging station for the year 1993 (calibration period)

01. 01. 01. 02. 01. 03. 01. 04. 01. 05. 01. 06. 01. 07. 01. 08. 01. 09. 01. 10. 01. 11. 01. 12. 01. 01.

Figure 5. Simulated and observed streamflow at the Otmuchow gauging station for the year 1993 (calibration period)

Otmuchow (Nysa Kl. Res. inflow, 2361 km2)

Validation period 1995-99; here 1997 : ME=86%

1000 900 800 700 600

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Otmuchow (Nysa Kl. Res. inflow, 2361 km2)

Validation period 1995-99; here 1997 : ME=86%

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Figure 6. Simulated and observed streamflow at the Otmuchow gauging station for the year 1997 (validation period)

01. 01. 01. 02. 01. 03. 01. 04. 01. 05. 01. 06. 01. 07. 01. 08. 01. 09. 01. 10. 01. 11. 01. 12. 01. 01.

Figure 6. Simulated and observed streamflow at the Otmuchow gauging station for the year 1997 (validation period)

during the rest of the year the total amount of discharge is adequately simulated. With 86% the efficiency is even higher than during the calibration phase. The extreme flooding event in July 1997, caused by two heavy precipitation events, with a maximum discharge of 800 m3/s on July 9 and a second maximum with 520 m3/s on July 21 are simulated on time but with slightly over- and under-estimated peaks. A small maximum on July 3 due to heavy precipitation is simulated but not seen in the observations. The efficiency for July exclusively is 79%.

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