Integrated management of water resources
The goal of Integrated Management of Water Resources (IMWR) is to unite all aspects of water resources control under a single leadership at the basin level. Normatov and Petrov (2007) described the process of testing IMWR principles on sub-basins of the Aral Sea drainage system before expanding these to the whole basin. The existing water organizations have to a considerable degree inherited their structures and functions from the former Soviet Union. Their vertical structures reflect Soviet command economy. These vertical structures work against IMWR and real integration is possible only on the general national level. At the some time, Ministries and departments are not giving the necessary attention to problems of integrated control of resources. Integration is even more limited at the inter-state level. The opportunity of integration is discussed only at a restricted number of chance meetings between ministries.
During the recent years of independence in the Central Asia Region, a few legislative acts have been developed supporting integration in the water sector. However, the effectiveness of these integration reforms is too restricted; as in former years, no two sectors discuss their problems on a regular basis. The first aim of IMWR should be to establish formal mechanisms for integration at a minimum level of accessibility according to two main models: (a) to organize Working Groups, and (b) to found Basin Commissions to establish the basinwide method of water resources control.
3.1. STRATEGY OF IMWR FOR THE VAKHSH BASIN
The main goal of the Strategy of IMWR for the Basin of the Vakhsh is development of a Tajik national strategy for integrated water resources control of Vakhsh part of Amudarya River transboundary basin to be affirmed by the Government for the years 2015-2020. The strategy of IMWR is to achieve three goals of ecologically sound development: economic development, social development, and protection of the environment. This strategy of IMWR for the Vakhsh River sub-basin is based on the international right of Tajikistan as an independent sovereign state to use all the water resources within its territory according to national legislative standards, but also taking account of the interests of other states within the transboundary basin of the Amudarya.
In this case priority will be given to: (1) a multi-branched approach to control of water resources, and protection of all freshwater sources, involving introducing more water-efficient irrigation and widening provision of sewage farms; (2) planning the stable and rational use, protection, economy and control of water resources based on the demands and priorities of society within the political framework of national development taking account of economical effectiveness, social usefulness and necessity of completing projects.
3.2. PROPOSED MEASURES TO IMPROVEMENT WATER RESOURCES CONTROL
It is proposed to establish a Commission of the Republic which comprises other Working Groups within its structure to accelerate the introduction of IMWR. The main tasks of the Commission are the harmonization interdepartmental interests, the planning of water resources utilization, the solution of practical problems of introducing integrated control of water resources, and cooperation between the various bodies administering the basin. The main tasks of Commission are:
• Long-term planning of water resources use and planning of development
• Drawing up recommendations on definition and agreement political aspects on sphere of using and protecting water resources
• Consideration of suggestion on improvement of regional and interstate water dividing, improvement of regimes of water resources using
• Informing society about development plans and water resources using
All the activities of the Commission and Working Group must be directed towards improvement of water resources control, and the gradual achievement of independence of basin Commissions and Committees by the active participation of all interested parties and sectors.
Short-term measures: creating at the outset an active Working Group to prepare the necessary documents and proposals for the Republican Commission; implementing the decisions adopted by Government for the operational channels of administration; reforming the Administration of the Irrigation System according to the hydrographical principles of water resources control and providing representations of all interested parties of water users and society. There will be elaborate and co-ordinated basinwide plans for the control, use and protection of water resources.
Medium-term measures: by the end of the period, the structure of the main ministries with interests in the water sector will be redesigned. This requires centralization of water resources at the basin level and creation of a system of complex monitoring of natural resources and the necessary data base of statistics.
Long-term measures: completion of mastering water-energetic resources of the Vakhsh River basin and creation of a regional market for the water resources.
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