Global Water Security

References

Allan, J.A., 1995 The Role of Drought in Determining the Reserve Water Sector in Israel. Drought Network News, 7 3 21-23. Beaumont, P., 2002 Water Policies for the Middle East in the 21st Century The New Economic Realities. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 18 2 315-334. Ben-Zvi, A., Dlayahu, E., Gottesmann, M. and Passal, A., 1998 Evolution of the 1990-1991 Water Crisis in Israel. Water International, 23 2 67-74. Brandes, O.M. and Ferguson, K., 2004 The Future in Every Drop...

Results and discussion

Torg Gard Clutch

INSTRUMENTAL ANALYTICAL APPROACHES FOR DETERMINATION OF TOTAL TOXICITY Usually different living organisms Crustacea, fish, algae, fungi, some vegetables and others are used to control total toxicity of environmental materials. An International Standard exists as the basis of the determination of some indexes of Daphnia immobilization ISO 6341 1996 E . Unfortunately, it is a very routine procedure. Other approaches which are used in practical applications are based on control of oxygen...

Methods for obtaining useful products for flood risk assessment

It is generally recognized that the management and mitigation of flood risk requires a holistic, structural set of activities, approached in practice on several fronts with appropriate institutional arrangements made to provide the agreed standards of services to the community at risk (Samuels, 2004). Flood management includes pre-flood, flood emergency and flood recovery activities. - Flood risk management for all flood causes - Disaster contingency planning building flood defence...

AY Hoekstra

University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands Abstract. Import of water in virtual form, i.e. in the form of agricultural and industrial commodities, can be an effective means for water-scarce countries to preserve their domestic water resources. On the other hand, export of water-intensive commodities will increase the use and thus the scarcity of water in the exporting countries. Another likely effect of international trade is that it increases dependency of nations that are net importers...

Introduction

The relation between international trade and water security is generally not something that government officials think about. The reason is that water is hardly traded internationally, due to its bulky properties. Besides, there is no private ownership of water so that it can also not be traded as in a market. It is often forgotten, however, that water is traded in virtual form, i.e. in the form of agricultural and industrial commodities. Although invisible, import of 'virtual water' can be an...

International trade amplifying national water scarcity

In the period 1997-2001, 16 of the water use in the world was not for producing products for domestic consumption but for making products for export (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007, 2008). The nations with the largest net annual water use for producing export products were the USA (92 billion cubic meters), Australia (57 billion cubic meters), Argentina (47 billion cubic meters), Canada (43 billion cubic meters), Brazil (36 billion cubic meters), and Thailand (26 billion cubic meters). The main...

S Szalai and L Cselotei

1 Hungarian Meteorological Service, 38 POB, 1525 Budapest, Hungary 2 Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 7 Nador u, 1051 Budapest, Hungary Abstract. Hungary is situated in the Carpathian basin and its climate has similar tendencies to the South European region. In particular, temperature shows increasing tendencies in all seasons and precipitation decreasing tendencies throughout the year except summer. The warming is faster than the global average, but the year-to-year variability of precipitation...

Sh Normatov and GN Petrov

Institute of Water Problems, Hydropower and Ecology, Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan, 12 Parvin St., Dushanbe 734002, Tajikistan Abstract. For the rational use of water resources in view of the reduction of the area of glaciation and degradation of glaciers in the Aral Sea basin, the paper offers the Integrated Water Resources Management of the region and describes the stages of its introduction via individual sub-basins. Keywords Transboundary water resources, Central Asia

Terrorism and war

This has really come to the fore since the events of 9 11, but in fact it is as old as warfare itself. Withholding or poisoning water supplies was a military tactic often used in the ancient world. As noted in the Working Group 1 Report (this volume), water is still being used as a weapon by both national armies and non-state terrorist organisations, from American rainmaking exercises to bog down the Vietcong in the Vietnamese war, and the recent US Air...

Commercialisation privatisation and globalisation

Finally, security means more than just having the resources. It means having control of them as well (see Working Group 3 Report, this volume). The commercialisation, privatisation and globalisation of water resources began with the exploitation of water for profit, with water companies driven by the need to produce dividends for investors ahead of providing a service to customers. The World Trade Organisation long ago declared water a commercial good and supports foreign takeover of water...

DB Brooks and J Linton

1 Friends of the Earth Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2 Dept. of Geography, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario Canada Abstract. Limiting our demands for water is one of the best ways to reduce risk and increase security. The need for greater attention to water demand has come to be widely accepted over the past decade. However, it has not generally been considered in the context of natural disasters. This presentation looks at three time frames within which a role for reductions in demand...

Promoting water security with demand management and soft paths

Tate (1993) defines water demand management (WDM) as any socially beneficial action that reduces or reschedules average or peak water withdrawals or consumption from either surface or groundwater, consistent with the protection or enhancement of water quality. Brooks (2006) offers a 5-part operational definition of demand management that distinguishes between water quantity and water quality and emphasizes methods for providing water during dry spells. Both of these definitions provide scope...

Promoting water security through demand management

With economic growth and the effects of climate change, reducing demand will, in most cases, be the cheapest and most readily available source of new water in most parts of the world. The amount of water that can be saved through demand management over the next 2 to 20 years is very great indeed. 4.1. PRICING AND COSTS AS THE CRITERION OF EFFICIENCY Putting a price on water is standard economic wisdom. Pricing works in the sense that most household users and all commercial users of water,...

Promoting water security through water soft paths

There is as yet only limited experience with water soft path analysis even less experience with its application in policy and none at all as a way promote water security over the long term. Though there is a modest body of published material, the only study that incorporates all elements of soft path analysis was undertaken by Friends of the Earth Canada (2007). The Canadian analysis involved water soft analysis at three scales urban, watershed, and provincial. For each of these scales, the...

Conclusion

The experiences and the research findings presented above provide ample evidence for reducing water demand as an effective strategy to increase water security in a wide variety of circumstances. Over and above the shorter term efficiency approach of demand management, water soft paths offer greater savings, and hence greater water security, within the context of a longer term search for a triple bottom line - economic growth, social equity, ecological sustainability. Though many institutional...

AE Gurzau C Borzan IR Lupsa LO Sfetcu AL Ivan and S Gurzau

1 Environmental Health Center, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 2 University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 3 Public Health Authority of Hunedoara County, Deva, Romania 4 Institute of Public Health, Timisoara, Romania 5 Institute of International Studies, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 6 Regional Center for Environmental and Health Assessment, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Abstract. The present paper deals with the drinking water security problems in large rural areas of Romania during the...

Results and discussions

The official statistics reported in 2005 in Timis County showed the following 34 affected localities with 5,375 households, 1,051 wells and 92,732 ha of land flooded and almost 3,000 people displaced. In Hunedoara County 37 localities, 830 households, 1,687 wells and 5,477 ha of land were also flooded. Disruptions in drinking water and sewage networks were reported in both counties. Water supply problems arise in all phases of the disaster-management cycle. As with all other elements of...

T Koltsova and J Belakova

Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, 165, Maskavas St., LV-1019 Riga, Latvia Abstract. The Lielupe River is the second largest river in Latvia. Annual water runoff of the Lielupe River to the Gulf of Riga is 3.37 km3. After Jelgava city, the river starts forming a typical estuary with riverbanks, small islands and peninsulas, swamps etc. From here and down to the river mouth, the gradient of the river is 5-10 cm per kilometre, and on occasion the high water level in the Gulf of...

Chairs and rapporteurs S Arlosoroff terrorism and JAA Jones

1 Mekorot, The National Water Corporation of Israel, Tel-Aviv Israel 2 Aberystwyth University and IGU Commission for Water Sustainability, Aberystwyth, UK Both terrorism and armed conflict can be threats to water security, either directly or indirectly. Both forms of violence have used disruption or poisoning of water supplies as a weapon, and both may cause collateral damage to water supplies. The distinction between war and terrorism can be arguable. Special Operations forces may use some...

Assessing water contamination

One of the popular methods of assessment of water contamination is monitoring and bio-indication of phytoplankton species quantity and diversity. Laboratory experiments on raw oil show differences in sensitive for a range of phytoplankton species. The species Ditylum brightwelli, Coscinodiscus granii and Chactoceros curvisetus perish within 24 h after oil treatment in 100 mcl l concentration (Mironov, 1970). Experiments show delay of reproduction of phytoplankton species Nitzschia closterium...

Z Filip and K Demnerova

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague (ICTP), Technicka 3-5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic Abstract. Groundwater represents a capital resource of drinking water in many countries, and there is a growing public concern in regard to contamination of groundwater aquifers by health relevant bacteria. In microcosmos filled either with groundwater alone, or containing also sand from a deep groundwater aquifer, the survival of different health relevant...

The observed climate and glacier change in the Caucasus Mountains

There are about 2,000 glaciers in the Greater Caucasus located predominantly in its central part (Fig. 1). Glacier melt in the Caucasus is particularly strong in June, July and August (JJA) and variations in JJA temperatures are of particular importance. The long-term observations confirm that these are rising (Fig. 2). A strong increase in JJA temperatures has been observed at Terskol and Aragats since the late 1960s. At both sites, in the last 40 years, JJA temperatures have been increasing...

Future climatic changes in the Caucasus region

Regional climate change scenarios have been developed using PRECIS to quantify changes in the future climate (2071-2100) relative to the climate of the baseline period (1961-1990). The projected changes in air temperature and precipitation in the Greater Caucasus and in a region encompassing Armenia and adjacent areas are shown in Fig. 4. These projections are for the A2 group of scenarios, which assume a rapid increase in the world population to 15.1 billion and an increase in mean CO2...

Danube river basin

Having its legal basis established since 1930, when the first law to protect natural monuments was passed, the study and protection of the natural assets in Romania saw a steady development until the 1960s, thereafter falling into neglect and being completely abandoned in the 1980s. A few To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail galatchi univ-ovidius.ro years after 1990, conservation activity experienced a revival. The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve was established, several...

The water hammer

Water Hammer Pipe Failure

A water hammer is a pressure surge or wave caused by the kinetic energy of a fluid in motion when it is forced to stop or change direction suddenly. For example, if a valve is closed suddenly at the end of a pipeline, a water hammer wave propagates in the pipe. Water in a pipe has kinetic energy proportional to its mass times the square of the velocity of the water. The water hammer phenomenon over-pressurises the pipe due to transient changes in flow rate Samani and Khayatzadeh, 2002 Boulos et...

Romanian system for emergency response

Evacuation Flowchart

The Romanian organisation for a flood emergency situation is based on procedures and information to assist the early warning and notification messages to responsible emergency management authorities. The responsible institutions for emergency situation management are presented in Fig. 1. The roles of the main institutions are as following Ministry of Environment and Water Management represents the highest level of the system. Its role is to - Develop the national strategy for protection against...

Threats from nonpoint and chronic sources

Streamside vegetation offers a first line of protection against the input of exogenous chemicals and sediments. Trees, shrubs, and dense, native grasses slow the flow of runoff allowing infiltration into porous riparian soils and the recharge of groundwater. Forested buffers greater than 20 m in width provide the most flood control, followed by shrub buffers and grass buffers (Osborne and Kovacic, 1993). In the state of Pennsylvania, for example, 40 of the stream kilometers have less than 30 m...

FTIR spectroscopic characterization of Escherichia coli

Fourier-Transform Infrared FT-IR spectroscopy is a widely utilized technique for chemical analysis Johnston, 1991 . In soil microbial biomass, IR spectroscopy appeared useful in establishing the spectral fingerprints of different cell constituents, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acid Filip, 1978a, b . Time-consuming and difficult isolation of individual cell structural units can be omitted using this technique, when intact cells biomass are under investigation. Also, small...

Creek connections and French Creek

Integral to any plan to protect the river is education of the citizens within the watershed. Creek Connections, a watershed education program run by Allegheny College, is one such effort. Kids in Creeks is an elegantly simple concept at the heart of Creek Connections that captures its core activities and enormous environmental learning, action and stewardship possibilities. Since 1995, Creek Connections has engaged K-12 schools in western Pennsylvania and New York turning waterways into outdoor...

Some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources

Georgia lies along the eastern coast of the Black Sea, to the south of the main Caucasian Ridge. About 85 of the total land area is occupied by mountain ranges. The Lesser Caucasus mountains occupy the southern part of Georgia. These two mountain systems are linked by the centrally located Surami mountain range, which bisects the country into the western and eastern regions. To the west of the Surami Range, the relief becomes much lower and elevations are generally less than 100 m along the...

Causes of floods in Afghanistan

Flooding, exacerbated by the combined effects of conflict and climate change, will continue to threaten Afghanistan in the future. Afghanistan is likely to be subject to increased flooding due to more snowfall in winter and warmer summers. In recent years snow basins contained a lot more snow than usual (USGS, 2003), and in 2006 this combined with rising temperatures and heavy spring rains resulted in a great deal of meltwater and consequent flooding. The Afghan climate is typical of an arid or...

The Caucasian region

Mos Eisley Aireal View

The peoples of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasian part of the Russian Federation, Northeast Turkey and Northwestern Iran live on nearly 600,000 km2. of the very seismically activity Caucasian Region situated between the Black and the Caspian Seas. The largest Caucasian rivers enter the Caspian and Black Seas. Armenia is located in the basins of the Araks and Kura rivers, which drain into the Caspian Sea, and the country has a mean height of 1,800 m above sea level. Severe...

The prediction of heat waves and drought conditions

During June, July and August 2003, an exceptional heat wave affected western and central Europe. The extreme drought and heat had heavy social, economic and environmental impacts, among them the death of thousands of the elderly. Other serious consequences were the destruction of large forest areas by fire, the depletion of aquatic ecosystems, the retreat of glaciers, power cuts and transport restrictions, and a decrease in agriculture production. In recent years, the number of such extremes...

T Davitashvili

I.Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics of Tbilisi State University, 2 University St., 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. In the present paper, some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources are presented. The river Rioni's possible pollution by oil in a period of flooding is studied by numerical modelling. Some results of the investigation of pollution of Georgia's largest river, the River Kura, are also given. With the purpose of studying subsurface water pollution by oil in case...

Hadjamberdiev V Shablovsky and V Ponomarev

Central Asia NGOs Network Water and Pollution, P.B. 1451, Bishkek 720040, Kyrgyzstan Abstract. There are over 5,000 mountain lakes in the region, and 724 of them can potentially destroy villages and farmland. In the case of Alpine lakes, failure can produce discharges containing many stones, which have a large destructive potential. Several cases of such disasters have occurred over the last 10 years - a tenth of the dwellings in several villages and two towns had been destroyed. Many water...

Bondyrev and ED Tsereteli

1 Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ministry of Education and Sciences of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia 2Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources of Georgia, Centre of Monitoring and Forecasting, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. The specifications of distribution and character of dynamic hazards due to water processes is reviewed in the paper floods, mudflows, landslides, and swamping. The assessment of the damage caused by these processes is also described. Keywords Floods,...

Some causes which produced the large flood impact

A BIG MISTAKE - GREEN CORRIDOR DESTRUCTION The Danube green corridor destruction and development for farming purposes was a mistake. Thus, along the course of the Danube, all former ponds and commons have been embanked and used as farming lands. It cannot be said if this was a good or bad action, but the remaking of the Danube green corridor has to be taken into consideration. There are two types of floods upstream and downstream floods. In 2005, Romania faced severe cases of both these...

Warehouses with toxic wastage

There are many warehouses 16 storing uranium, 54 obsolete pesticides, 2 storing cyanide in our region situated on the banks of rivers. There was a release from a pesticides warehouse that killed fish in Son-Kul, which is a high-altitude lake 3,016 m above sea level, storage - 2.64 km3 in Kyrgyzstan TienShan in 1977. Some examples follow. There is a large waste warehouse containing cyanide from gold mining Kum-Tor area, 4,100 m above sea level, warehouse stores a total volume 100 million cubic...

Polytoxicosis of fish

In order to select priority indicators of ecological status, seasonal surveys of the Amu water and fish quality were undertaken in 2002. Bio-indication was combined with physical and chemical methods IR and UV spectroscopy, gas and liquid chromatography, atomic-absorption spectrometry . Transboundary pollution of the Amu River from adjacent areas of China, wastes from power sources, river transportation and forest fires were the most important factors. To whom correspondence should be...

Climate change and dangerous hydrological processes

Wechselkurse

Reduction of glaciation began at the end of 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age (Voitkovskiy and Volodicheva, 2004). Now, glaciation is in a regressive phase and the general reduction removed about 20 from the glaciated area during the first 70 years of the 20th century. Thus, there has been a reduction in the area, volume and length of glaciers, and an increase of their number and the altitudes of their snouts. The size of glaciers has continued to change in recent decades...

Response to emergency staying alive

Reduced demand for water is typically a result of, not a solution for, the problems that arise in the immediate aftermath of natural disasters or major accidents. Appropriate measures cannot, for the most part, be brought into operation in the time scale of weeks to months. To be part of the solution, demand management must be in place before the event occurs. There are two exceptions to the foregoing generalization, both of which apply mainly to seasonal or exceptional droughts. First, many...

Longterm monitoring in a drinking water facility

One of the most challenging tasks for continuous monitoring is the direct control of drinking water quality in order to warning immediately that permitted concentration values are exceeded. For the Gallus Quelle water supply with a fractured aquifer system, it is crucial to have continuous information on the water status. The tool was mounted directly opposite an open fracture and the neutron density continuously recorded (Fig. 7). The monitoring curve corresponds with the simultanously...

Water grids and water pipes failures

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS Since prehistory, mankind has used artificial pipes and channels to transport water to settlements and fields. In the Middle Ages wooden tubes were used. Some are still in service in some districts of Paris and London. Water distribution systems must be constantly expanded to satisfy the needs of the population. In many countries, population is more and more sensitive to the fact that water problem is also a sanitary problem. Some disease...

RA Khaydarov RR Khaydarov and SY

11nstitute of Nuclear Physics, Ulugbek, 100214, Tashkent, Uzbekistan 2 Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract. The paper deals with a novel technical approach to alternative drinking water supplies for inhabitants of the Aral Sea Region. The water treatment technique based on using special ion-exchange fibrous sorbents with immobilized silver nanoparticles is described. The newly developed sorbents are currently used in water treatment filters for removing heavy metal ions and organic...

Working Group I Risk Assessment And Water Governance

Friends of the Earth Canada (with additions by Tony Jones) Although the initial remit given to this Working Group was to discuss the possible effects of changing management of water resources from State to private companies, most of the group consisting of delegates from former Soviet countries found that they preferred to discuss more regional issues and to focus on risk assessment. The two are not entirely separate issues, as the facilities of the State for providing early warning of...

International trade alleviating national water scarcity

An obvious effect of international trade in water-intensive commodities is that it generates water savings in the countries that import those commodities. This effect has been discussed since the mid-1990s (Allan, 2001b Hoekstra, 2003 Oki and Kanae, 2004 De Fraiture et al., 2004 Chapagain et al., 2006 Yang et al., 2006). The national water saving associated with import can be estimated by multiplying the imported product volume by the volume of water that would have been required to produce the...

Dynamics of irrigation and hydropower development in the Central Asia Region

The principal spheres of water resources use in Central Asia today are irrigated agriculture and hydropower. At the beginning of the 20th century, about 3.5 million hectares were irrigated in the region. By the 1990s the total irrigated area in the region increased to 8.8 million hectares. The total established capacity of all electric power stations in the region increased to 37.8 million kilowatts and at that time the capacity of hydropower stations in the region reached 11.31 million...

Materials and methods

As models, some rivers in Steppe and Polissya zones of Ukraine as well as in the Carpathian foothills have been chosen. As an example, realization of ecological risk assessment methodology on the Dnipro river near Kherson city have been considered. Field investigations, sample collection and biological assessment of impact of the point source of pollution (Kherson city) on the Dnipro's hydroecosystems were carried out at different distances immediately downstream of wastewater discharge (tens...

VA Dukhovny AI Tuchin AG Sorokin I Ruziev and GV Stulina

Scientific Information Center of Interstate Commission for Water Coordination in Central Asia, Tashkent, Uzbekistan Abstract. Heads of State of the Central Asian Republics recognized the impossibility of restoring the Aral Sea in its former volume and biologically activity in 1994. Since then, the governments of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have taken measures to stabilize the situation. This paper summarizes the work of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination in Central Asia on possible...

Variability of agricultural production

Rainfed agriculture has a large year-to-year variability according to the climate variability, primarily due to the drought events. The largest area equipped for irrigation was about half a million hectare, but practically, the largest irrigated area does not exceed 300,000 ha in dry years and 100,000 ha in wetter years. The changing economical and political conditions had large influence on the irrigated area. According to Table 2, Hungary has possibilities for irrigation on about 120,000 ha....

Floods in Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a country not only crippled by decades of conflict, but also prone to natural disasters. Earthquakes, droughts, floods and extreme snowfall affect the lives of thousands of Afghans. Severe flooding in 2005 and 2006 made thousands homeless, and destroyed agricultural land, livestock and infrastructure. In the post-Taliban era alone 50 floods have already been reported. However, except for short situational reports many of these floods are not well documented, thus little is known...

The floods of

All Romania suffered floods of greater or smaller magnitude. According to the Report of the Environment and Water Management Ministry 2007 , the floods caused by excess water in the rivers, damage to or overtopping of dikes, and drainage on hillslopes affected 1,734 communities, the total value of damages exceeding 1.5 billion euros. The death toll was of 76 persons, and 93,976 houses and domestic annexes were damaged more than 650,000 ha of agricultural land was...

JO Palmer and E Pallant

Department of Environmental Science, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania, USA Abstract. Disasters created by chronic perturbations are as debilitating as acute disasters such as tsunamis and oil spills. French Creek is the most biologically diverse river in Pennsylvania but is threatened by invasive species, poorly managed farm animals, urban and agricultural runoff, leaky septic systems, and loss of riparian buffer zones. For chronic, non-point threats, prevention is the best protection...

Near Issyk Kul Lake

The formation of a pollution leakage mostly by underground waters in the Kadzi-Sai tailings repository area is caused by the complex interrelation of cumulative stratigraphic, hydrological, and climatic factors (KAJI-SAY uranium tailings demonstration, 2006). The most probable primary source of environmental pollution is a very permeable water-bearing horizon of proluvial-talus sediments laid down in former channel beds. The pollution is possibly a result of washout and removal from places...

Water resources irrigation demand

Total water consumption is about 60 km3 in Hungary today. The largest part of this is evaporation and transpiration. Human water demand comprises the industrial and communal water (4.5 + 1 km3), aquaculture and irrigation need about 0.5 km3 water. Additionally, glasshouse and ornamental plant production requires 0.1-0.2 km3 of irrigation water. Unfortunately, the use of wastewater is not satisfactory and not well measured. The use of subsurface water by root systems and wells is important, but...

Values and resources utilization

The values of Danube Delta can be divided into products, functions and services. Each of the following aspects gives an overview of the relative importance of specific values in the Danube Delta. Let's look at products first. A wide variety of plants and animals, as well as mineral products and water, are harvested from the Danube Delta, providing considerable economic returns to various stakeholders. Water-bird hunting occurs over almost the entire delta. The hunting is mainly recreational,...

How international trade can enhance national water dependency

Nations can be 'water dependent' in two different ways. Most writings about national water dependency are concerned with the dependency of downstream nations on the inflow from water from upstream basins or the mutual dependency of nations sharing a border river. This type of water dependency is sometimes quantified by considering the ratio of external to total renewable water resources of a country. FAO (2007) defines the 'external renewable water resources' of a country as that part of the...

N Haruvy and S Shalhevet

1 Netanya Academic College, Netanya, Israel 2 SustainEcon, Brookline, MA, USA Abstract. The disaster risk from groundwater contamination in Israel has been increasing due to continuous over-pumping as well as urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This risk can be reduced by making changes in water pumping policies and by higher level treatment of wastewater. However, these changes are expensive, and their specific effects on groundwater salinity depend on the local hydrological...

Flooding In Afghanistan A Crisis E Hagen and JF Teufert

1 NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency NC3A , The Hague, The Netherlands 2 Department of Geography, National University Singapore NUS , Singapore Abstract. Afghanistan is a nation prone to natural disasters such as floods and droughts. Yet the severe floods of 2005 and 2006, which displaced thousands, highlighted how little was known about floods in the mountainous nation. At present no flood hazard maps exist pinpointing the location and extent of the inundated areas, nor are there...

T Basilashvili

Institute of Hydrometeorology, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. Climate change over the last century combined with increased human interference has increased the frequency of droughts and floods. These extreme events should not necessarily constitute a threat to the human population, provided water is carefully managed. The lack of hydrological data, especially for mountain rivers, is a major hindrance to management. The research reported here aims to provide a predictive framework to assist water...

Mathematical software

Three levels of mathematical models are offered analytical, optimization and imitational. Within the framework of analytical models (Navruzov, 1991), the theoretical game models for the distribution of water resources between the states of the Amudarya basin are considered. A number of characteristic examples of games with non-opposite interests are discussed. Optimization models (Navruzov, 1990) of the reservoir management of the upstream water resources of the Amudarya are offered, which use...

Integrated management of water resources

The goal of Integrated Management of Water Resources (IMWR) is to unite all aspects of water resources control under a single leadership at the basin level. Normatov and Petrov (2007) described the process of testing IMWR principles on sub-basins of the Aral Sea drainage system before expanding these to the whole basin. The existing water organizations have to a considerable degree inherited their structures and functions from the former Soviet Union. Their vertical structures reflect Soviet...

Flow modifications through water use

Many boreal rivers are subject to several forms of flow regulation for hydropower generation and for water supply. Three types of flow regulation are recognized alteration of the timing of flow, withdrawal of water for consumptive use and flow diversion from one drainage system to another. Hydro-power generation alone does not diminish the water flow (unless it involves large reservoirs that lead to increased evaporation loss) but the timing of discharge can be significantly altered to meet...

Researching options for rehabilitation

The Interstate Commission for Water Coordination in Central Asia (ICWC) concentrated attention on the two directions of work on the Aral Sea and Aral Sea coast 1. To forecast the future of Aral Sea water bodies 2. To survey and evaluate the situation of the drying bottom of the Aral Sea in order to clarify the landscape changes, development of wetlands and afforestation process The first direction is to develop forecasts of salt and water balances in the Aral Sea for various scenarios of water...

Methods and materials

The results of hydro-meteorological observations by the Armenian Hydro-Meteorological Department, other departments and organisations in the country, climatic and hydrological atlases, as well as materials of the author's field observations on different rivers of Armenia have been used as basic material in this work. The main principles and methods of spatial-temporal analysis and the synthesis of respective data and generalisations have been used for processing the basic data. To assess the...

Torosyan and S Harutyunyan

1 Chemical Technology & Environmental Engineering department of State Engineering University of Armenia, 105 Teryan, 375 009 Yerevan, Republic of Armenia 2 Yerevan State Economic University, Yerevan Armenia, 128 Nalbandyan, 0062 Yerevan, Republic of Armenia Abstract. This paper presents results of research on the use of natural materials such as zeolites (mordenite and clinoptilolite) as sorbents and as promising materials for protecting flood-prone areas after a flood. Floods transfer large...

Mathematical modelling of oil infiltration into soil for Assessment of undersurface water pollution

We have applied mathematical models describing oil penetration into soils as a result of accidents on railway and pipeline routes in the general case and for special conditions taking into account the specific properties of several types of soils found along the routes Davitashvili and Komurjishvili, 2002 Davitashvili, 2004 . The calculations were made for meadow-alluvial, sandy and sub-sandy soils. Numerical calculations were carried out during 180 days. Numerical calculations have shown that...

Water treatment technique

The local problem of removing water hardness and organic contaminants can be solved by using special home and industrial water treatment systems based on developed fibrous sorbents with immobilized silver nanoparticles. Polyacrylonitrile PAN cloth with a surface density of 1.0 kg m2 and thickness of 10 mm was utilized as the raw material for making ion-exchange sorbents. Experiments by Khaydarov and Khaydarov 2006 have shown that the optimum condition for obtaining cation-exchange sorbents is...

The hydrological model SEROS

The hydrological model SEROS combines the one-dimensional vertical land surface scheme SEWAB Surface Energy and Water Balance, Mengelkamp et al., 1999 and a horizontal routing scheme Lohmann et al., 1996 . The one-dimensional vertical land surface model SEWAB calculates the vertical water and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere and within the soil column for a land surface grid cell. The surface energy balance equation describes the equilibrium of net irradiance, latent...

The importance of land surface conditions and of surface layer parameterizations

In the last 2 decades, it has been recognized that a necessary boundary condition for all Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling is the representation of the land surface processes. They are crucial in short-term weather forecasts as well as for climatic predictions, as the Earth surface can influence the partition between sensible and latent heat fluxes and consequently the atmospheric stability is related to the surface properties. In this respect, leaving aside the surface and land...

Experiments

Sedimentary deposits of zeolite are widespread in the Idjevan clinopilolite and Shirak mordenite regions of Armenia. The natural zeolites clinop-tilolite and mordenite were dehydrated at 110oC, and prepared by the heated pile method, using 0.5 and 1 N solutions of CaCl2. Clinoptilolite modified by catamine-AB was prepared according to Torosyan et al. 2000 . Adsorptive isotherms were determined for the equilibrium status of water containing chlorine compounds or pesticides in concentrations of...

Risk assessment issues in the wider Caucasus region

The Working Group identified a wide range of risks, some of which are more readily assessed by current methods than others Risk of ongoing water scarcity for current populations and for economic growth Increased risk of floods and of droughts, along with increased scale of resulting damages Risk of water resources contamination during times of water surplus or water deficit Sources of and options for coping with natural and technological disasters Risks associated with anticipated effects of...

Pulse neutron monitoring on the River Meuse at Eijsden

A field trial in the River Meuse was carried out over a time period of 3 weeks with data sampling each hour (Fig. 9). The probe was lowered to the river bottom and Fig. 9 shows the general situation for both channels over the whole monitoring period. The average lines for the neutron intensity distribution in both channels are very similar and in view of their different depth of investigation, it may be concluded that the situation in the bottom sediments and in the water is comparable. In the...

And its environmental problems

The Caspian Sea region has abundant oil and gas reserves, but a limited accessible market for the products. Today, TRACECA is considered as a corridor, which is complementing other existing routes. The European Union considers Georgia as a partner in the development of the transport networks between the Black Sea and Central Asia because of its geopolitical position. Georgia participates in 19 of the 35 projects undertaken in the regional program TRACECA. The probability of failures in the oil...

The River Kura pollution

The most polluted rivers in Georgia are the Kura, Mashavera, Kvirila and Rioni. Because of financial and economical difficulties, the data from surface water monitoring has been very poor over the last 16 years. In most of these rivers, concentrations of phenols, hydrocarbons, copper, manganese, zinc and nitrogen are considerably higher than the national and international standards. The major sources of pollution are transport, the chemical industry and the energy sector. The largest polluter...

NI Alexeevskiy and NL Frolova

Department of Hydrology, Moscow State University, Russia Abstract. Analysis of dangerous hydrological processes is one of the essential components of future regional water resource systems planning. One of them is developed now for the Terek river basin. Contrasts of relief and climate create the prerequisites for the development of various dangerous natural processes, constantly endangering the safety of people. Climate changes during recent decades have been reflected in increasing...

Maximum water level variability in the rivers of the Terek basin

The specific features of the r gime of the Terek are caused by the combination of groundwater, snow, rain and glacier feed. Maximum levels of the alpine rivers are mainly provided by the spring flood caused by glacier and snow patch melting in May and June. The origin and the time of flood peaks change lower down the basin. In the plains and foothills, the highest levels are the result of summer rains, but floods occur throughout the year as a result of heavy rainfalls. To study the...

Threats to biodiversity and naturalness

The threats to biodiversity can be divided into two groups one that results from human action outside the delta area, and the other due to unsustainable human action within the delta. Humans have modified the river discharge to the Delta, mainly by hydro-technical works, particularly dams, in upstream river sections. Such interventions were generally considered the most important threat recorded. These changes affect many aspects of the functioning of the Delta, but are particularly important...

Reconstruction and rehabilitation

Slovakia's sewer systems are old systems and a high percentage of them need reconstruction (Stanko and Mahrikov , 2006). The lifetime of sewer pipes is usually no more than 50 years (STN, 2003b). The present state in the big cities is very inadequate. Table 1 gives an indication of the amount of reconstruction that is necessary. TABLE 1. Present state of the sewer system pipe composition by material and diameter TABLE 1. Present state of the sewer system pipe composition by material and...