How international trade can enhance national water dependency

Nations can be 'water dependent' in two different ways. Most writings about national water dependency are concerned with the dependency of downstream nations on the inflow from water from upstream basins or the mutual dependency of nations sharing a border river. This type of water dependency is sometimes quantified by considering the ratio of external to total renewable water resources of a country. FAO (2007) defines the 'external renewable water resources' of a country as that part of the...

Dynamics of irrigation and hydropower development in the Central Asia Region

The principal spheres of water resources use in Central Asia today are irrigated agriculture and hydropower. At the beginning of the 20th century, about 3.5 million hectares were irrigated in the region. By the 1990s the total irrigated area in the region increased to 8.8 million hectares. The total established capacity of all electric power stations in the region increased to 37.8 million kilowatts and at that time the capacity of hydropower stations in the region reached 11.31 million...

N Haruvy and S Shalhevet

1 Netanya Academic College, Netanya, Israel 2 SustainEcon, Brookline, MA, USA Abstract. The disaster risk from groundwater contamination in Israel has been increasing due to continuous over-pumping as well as urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This risk can be reduced by making changes in water pumping policies and by higher level treatment of wastewater. However, these changes are expensive, and their specific effects on groundwater salinity depend on the local hydrological...

Methods and materials

The results of hydro-meteorological observations by the Armenian Hydro-Meteorological Department, other departments and organisations in the country, climatic and hydrological atlases, as well as materials of the author's field observations on different rivers of Armenia have been used as basic material in this work. The main principles and methods of spatial-temporal analysis and the synthesis of respective data and generalisations have been used for processing the basic data. To assess the...

Means of maximum level and discharge forecasting

In an effort to improvement protection from both floods and lack water resources, methods of short-term forecasting of water level and discharge were developed for the Terek basin. For mountainous rivers, where runoff depends on snowcover and glacial thawing, a physical-statistical model of runoff during a summer high water period has been produced, based on air temperature. The model realized for the Cherek River at Sovetsky allows summer discharges to be forecast adequately with 2-4 day lead...

Commercialisation privatisation and globalisation

Finally, security means more than just having the resources. It means having control of them as well (see Working Group 3 Report, this volume). The commercialisation, privatisation and globalisation of water resources began with the exploitation of water for profit, with water companies driven by the need to produce dividends for investors ahead of providing a service to customers. The World Trade Organisation long ago declared water a commercial good and supports foreign takeover of water...

Promoting water security through water soft paths

There is as yet only limited experience with water soft path analysis even less experience with its application in policy and none at all as a way promote water security over the long term. Though there is a modest body of published material, the only study that incorporates all elements of soft path analysis was undertaken by Friends of the Earth Canada (2007). The Canadian analysis involved water soft analysis at three scales urban, watershed, and provincial. For each of these scales, the...

MingKo Woo and R Thorne

School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract. The circumpolar boreal region is generally well endowed with water resources relative to its low population. The most common natural river flow pattern is the nival regime in which snowfall accumulated during the long winter is rapidly melted in the spring, releasing large meltwater fluxes that cause the hydrograph to peak. Human development has altered this flow rhythm through water use and...

Assessing water contamination

One of the popular methods of assessment of water contamination is monitoring and bio-indication of phytoplankton species quantity and diversity. Laboratory experiments on raw oil show differences in sensitive for a range of phytoplankton species. The species Ditylum brightwelli, Coscinodiscus granii and Chactoceros curvisetus perish within 24 h after oil treatment in 100 mcl l concentration (Mironov, 1970). Experiments show delay of reproduction of phytoplankton species Nitzschia closterium...

Water resources irrigation demand

Total water consumption is about 60 km3 in Hungary today. The largest part of this is evaporation and transpiration. Human water demand comprises the industrial and communal water (4.5 + 1 km3), aquaculture and irrigation need about 0.5 km3 water. Additionally, glasshouse and ornamental plant production requires 0.1-0.2 km3 of irrigation water. Unfortunately, the use of wastewater is not satisfactory and not well measured. The use of subsurface water by root systems and wells is important, but...

Integrated management of water resources

The goal of Integrated Management of Water Resources (IMWR) is to unite all aspects of water resources control under a single leadership at the basin level. Normatov and Petrov (2007) described the process of testing IMWR principles on sub-basins of the Aral Sea drainage system before expanding these to the whole basin. The existing water organizations have to a considerable degree inherited their structures and functions from the former Soviet Union. Their vertical structures reflect Soviet...

Some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources

Georgia lies along the eastern coast of the Black Sea, to the south of the main Caucasian Ridge. About 85 of the total land area is occupied by mountain ranges. The Lesser Caucasus mountains occupy the southern part of Georgia. These two mountain systems are linked by the centrally located Surami mountain range, which bisects the country into the western and eastern regions. To the west of the Surami Range, the relief becomes much lower and elevations are generally less than 100 m along the...

Longterm monitoring in a drinking water facility

One of the most challenging tasks for continuous monitoring is the direct control of drinking water quality in order to warning immediately that permitted concentration values are exceeded. For the Gallus Quelle water supply with a fractured aquifer system, it is crucial to have continuous information on the water status. The tool was mounted directly opposite an open fracture and the neutron density continuously recorded (Fig. 7). The monitoring curve corresponds with the simultanously...

Promoting water security through demand management

With economic growth and the effects of climate change, reducing demand will, in most cases, be the cheapest and most readily available source of new water in most parts of the world. The amount of water that can be saved through demand management over the next 2 to 20 years is very great indeed. 4.1. PRICING AND COSTS AS THE CRITERION OF EFFICIENCY Putting a price on water is standard economic wisdom. Pricing works in the sense that most household users and all commercial users of water,...

Creek connections and French Creek

Integral to any plan to protect the river is education of the citizens within the watershed. Creek Connections, a watershed education program run by Allegheny College, is one such effort. Kids in Creeks is an elegantly simple concept at the heart of Creek Connections that captures its core activities and enormous environmental learning, action and stewardship possibilities. Since 1995, Creek Connections has engaged K-12 schools in western Pennsylvania and New York turning waterways into outdoor...

International trade amplifying national water scarcity

In the period 1997-2001, 16 of the water use in the world was not for producing products for domestic consumption but for making products for export (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007, 2008). The nations with the largest net annual water use for producing export products were the USA (92 billion cubic meters), Australia (57 billion cubic meters), Argentina (47 billion cubic meters), Canada (43 billion cubic meters), Brazil (36 billion cubic meters), and Thailand (26 billion cubic meters). The main...

DB Brooks and J Linton

1 Friends of the Earth Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2 Dept. of Geography, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario Canada Abstract. Limiting our demands for water is one of the best ways to reduce risk and increase security. The need for greater attention to water demand has come to be widely accepted over the past decade. However, it has not generally been considered in the context of natural disasters. This presentation looks at three time frames within which a role for reductions in demand...

Some causes which produced the large flood impact

A BIG MISTAKE - GREEN CORRIDOR DESTRUCTION The Danube green corridor destruction and development for farming purposes was a mistake. Thus, along the course of the Danube, all former ponds and commons have been embanked and used as farming lands. It cannot be said if this was a good or bad action, but the remaking of the Danube green corridor has to be taken into consideration. There are two types of floods upstream and downstream floods. In 2005, Romania faced severe cases of both these...

Flow modifications through water use

Many boreal rivers are subject to several forms of flow regulation for hydropower generation and for water supply. Three types of flow regulation are recognized alteration of the timing of flow, withdrawal of water for consumptive use and flow diversion from one drainage system to another. Hydro-power generation alone does not diminish the water flow (unless it involves large reservoirs that lead to increased evaporation loss) but the timing of discharge can be significantly altered to meet...

JO Palmer and E Pallant

Department of Environmental Science, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania, USA Abstract. Disasters created by chronic perturbations are as debilitating as acute disasters such as tsunamis and oil spills. French Creek is the most biologically diverse river in Pennsylvania but is threatened by invasive species, poorly managed farm animals, urban and agricultural runoff, leaky septic systems, and loss of riparian buffer zones. For chronic, non-point threats, prevention is the best protection...

Working Group I Risk Assessment And Water Governance

Friends of the Earth Canada (with additions by Tony Jones) Although the initial remit given to this Working Group was to discuss the possible effects of changing management of water resources from State to private companies, most of the group consisting of delegates from former Soviet countries found that they preferred to discuss more regional issues and to focus on risk assessment. The two are not entirely separate issues, as the facilities of the State for providing early warning of...

Mathematical software

Three levels of mathematical models are offered analytical, optimization and imitational. Within the framework of analytical models (Navruzov, 1991), the theoretical game models for the distribution of water resources between the states of the Amudarya basin are considered. A number of characteristic examples of games with non-opposite interests are discussed. Optimization models (Navruzov, 1990) of the reservoir management of the upstream water resources of the Amudarya are offered, which use...

Researching options for rehabilitation

The Interstate Commission for Water Coordination in Central Asia (ICWC) concentrated attention on the two directions of work on the Aral Sea and Aral Sea coast 1. To forecast the future of Aral Sea water bodies 2. To survey and evaluate the situation of the drying bottom of the Aral Sea in order to clarify the landscape changes, development of wetlands and afforestation process The first direction is to develop forecasts of salt and water balances in the Aral Sea for various scenarios of water...

Climate change and dangerous hydrological processes

Reduction of glaciation began at the end of 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age (Voitkovskiy and Volodicheva, 2004). Now, glaciation is in a regressive phase and the general reduction removed about 20 from the glaciated area during the first 70 years of the 20th century. Thus, there has been a reduction in the area, volume and length of glaciers, and an increase of their number and the altitudes of their snouts. The size of glaciers has continued to change in recent decades...

Response to emergency staying alive

Reduced demand for water is typically a result of, not a solution for, the problems that arise in the immediate aftermath of natural disasters or major accidents. Appropriate measures cannot, for the most part, be brought into operation in the time scale of weeks to months. To be part of the solution, demand management must be in place before the event occurs. There are two exceptions to the foregoing generalization, both of which apply mainly to seasonal or exceptional droughts. First, many...

S Szalai and L Cselotei

1 Hungarian Meteorological Service, 38 POB, 1525 Budapest, Hungary 2 Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 7 Nador u, 1051 Budapest, Hungary Abstract. Hungary is situated in the Carpathian basin and its climate has similar tendencies to the South European region. In particular, temperature shows increasing tendencies in all seasons and precipitation decreasing tendencies throughout the year except summer. The warming is faster than the global average, but the year-to-year variability of precipitation...

Future climatic changes in the Caucasus region

Regional climate change scenarios have been developed using PRECIS to quantify changes in the future climate (2071-2100) relative to the climate of the baseline period (1961-1990). The projected changes in air temperature and precipitation in the Greater Caucasus and in a region encompassing Armenia and adjacent areas are shown in Fig. 4. These projections are for the A2 group of scenarios, which assume a rapid increase in the world population to 15.1 billion and an increase in mean CO2...

Materials and methods

As models, some rivers in Steppe and Polissya zones of Ukraine as well as in the Carpathian foothills have been chosen. As an example, realization of ecological risk assessment methodology on the Dnipro river near Kherson city have been considered. Field investigations, sample collection and biological assessment of impact of the point source of pollution (Kherson city) on the Dnipro's hydroecosystems were carried out at different distances immediately downstream of wastewater discharge (tens...

The observed climate and glacier change in the Caucasus Mountains

There are about 2,000 glaciers in the Greater Caucasus located predominantly in its central part (Fig. 1). Glacier melt in the Caucasus is particularly strong in June, July and August (JJA) and variations in JJA temperatures are of particular importance. The long-term observations confirm that these are rising (Fig. 2). A strong increase in JJA temperatures has been observed at Terskol and Aragats since the late 1960s. At both sites, in the last 40 years, JJA temperatures have been increasing...

Reconstruction and rehabilitation

Slovakia's sewer systems are old systems and a high percentage of them need reconstruction (Stanko and Mahrikov , 2006). The lifetime of sewer pipes is usually no more than 50 years (STN, 2003b). The present state in the big cities is very inadequate. Table 1 gives an indication of the amount of reconstruction that is necessary. TABLE 1. Present state of the sewer system pipe composition by material and diameter TABLE 1. Present state of the sewer system pipe composition by material and...

Causes of floods in Afghanistan

Flooding, exacerbated by the combined effects of conflict and climate change, will continue to threaten Afghanistan in the future. Afghanistan is likely to be subject to increased flooding due to more snowfall in winter and warmer summers. In recent years snow basins contained a lot more snow than usual (USGS, 2003), and in 2006 this combined with rising temperatures and heavy spring rains resulted in a great deal of meltwater and consequent flooding. The Afghan climate is typical of an arid or...

Sh Normatov and GN Petrov

Institute of Water Problems, Hydropower and Ecology, Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan, 12 Parvin St., Dushanbe 734002, Tajikistan Abstract. For the rational use of water resources in view of the reduction of the area of glaciation and degradation of glaciers in the Aral Sea basin, the paper offers the Integrated Water Resources Management of the region and describes the stages of its introduction via individual sub-basins. Keywords Transboundary water resources, Central Asia

International trade alleviating national water scarcity

An obvious effect of international trade in water-intensive commodities is that it generates water savings in the countries that import those commodities. This effect has been discussed since the mid-1990s (Allan, 2001b Hoekstra, 2003 Oki and Kanae, 2004 De Fraiture et al., 2004 Chapagain et al., 2006 Yang et al., 2006). The national water saving associated with import can be estimated by multiplying the imported product volume by the volume of water that would have been required to produce the...

Methods for obtaining useful products for flood risk assessment

It is generally recognized that the management and mitigation of flood risk requires a holistic, structural set of activities, approached in practice on several fronts with appropriate institutional arrangements made to provide the agreed standards of services to the community at risk (Samuels, 2004). Flood management includes pre-flood, flood emergency and flood recovery activities. - Flood risk management for all flood causes - Disaster contingency planning building flood defence...

The prediction of heat waves and drought conditions

During June, July and August 2003, an exceptional heat wave affected western and central Europe. The extreme drought and heat had heavy social, economic and environmental impacts, among them the death of thousands of the elderly. Other serious consequences were the destruction of large forest areas by fire, the depletion of aquatic ecosystems, the retreat of glaciers, power cuts and transport restrictions, and a decrease in agriculture production. In recent years, the number of such extremes...

Aghinian

Yerevan State University, Geological Department, Alex Manoogian 1, Republic of Armenia Abstract. The Aparan confined aquifer feeds the aqueduct supplying Yerevan's drinking water. Hydrogeologically, the terrain consists of an unconfined or water-table aquifer composed of recent alluvial-proluvial sediments, and a confined aquifer composed of Quaternary lacustrine-alluvial sediments. An assessment of the natural and bacteriological vulnerability of these aquifers was made, and a 3D...

Risk assessment issues in the wider Caucasus region

The Working Group identified a wide range of risks, some of which are more readily assessed by current methods than others Risk of ongoing water scarcity for current populations and for economic growth Increased risk of floods and of droughts, along with increased scale of resulting damages Risk of water resources contamination during times of water surplus or water deficit Sources of and options for coping with natural and technological disasters Risks associated with anticipated effects of...

Maximum water level variability in the rivers of the Terek basin

The specific features of the r gime of the Terek are caused by the combination of groundwater, snow, rain and glacier feed. Maximum levels of the alpine rivers are mainly provided by the spring flood caused by glacier and snow patch melting in May and June. The origin and the time of flood peaks change lower down the basin. In the plains and foothills, the highest levels are the result of summer rains, but floods occur throughout the year as a result of heavy rainfalls. To study the...

The Caucasian region

The peoples of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasian part of the Russian Federation, Northeast Turkey and Northwestern Iran live on nearly 600,000 km2. of the very seismically activity Caucasian Region situated between the Black and the Caspian Seas. The largest Caucasian rivers enter the Caspian and Black Seas. Armenia is located in the basins of the Araks and Kura rivers, which drain into the Caspian Sea, and the country has a mean height of 1,800 m above sea level. Severe...

Terrorism and war

This has really come to the fore since the events of 9 11, but in fact it is as old as warfare itself. Withholding or poisoning water supplies was a military tactic often used in the ancient world. As noted in the Working Group 1 Report (this volume), water is still being used as a weapon by both national armies and non-state terrorist organisations, from American rainmaking exercises to bog down the Vietcong in the Vietnamese war, and the recent US Air...

Terrorism

A terrorist attack can occur anywhere, any time, perpetrated by a small cell without any links to foreign commands or international financial transfers. Many attempts have been made to poison water resources, not just since 9 11. The main result of such an event is not just the cases of mortality or morbidity, but the panic caused. An extreme case of panic could cause mass infection by people evading quarantine spreading the infection nationally or even globally (cp. SARS and Avian flu). There...

T Basilashvili

Institute of Hydrometeorology, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. Climate change over the last century combined with increased human interference has increased the frequency of droughts and floods. These extreme events should not necessarily constitute a threat to the human population, provided water is carefully managed. The lack of hydrological data, especially for mountain rivers, is a major hindrance to management. The research reported here aims to provide a predictive framework to assist water...

Experiments

Sedimentary deposits of zeolite are widespread in the Idjevan clinopilolite and Shirak mordenite regions of Armenia. The natural zeolites clinop-tilolite and mordenite were dehydrated at 110oC, and prepared by the heated pile method, using 0.5 and 1 N solutions of CaCl2. Clinoptilolite modified by catamine-AB was prepared according to Torosyan et al. 2000 . Adsorptive isotherms were determined for the equilibrium status of water containing chlorine compounds or pesticides in concentrations of...

Romanian system for emergency response

Evacuation Flowchart

The Romanian organisation for a flood emergency situation is based on procedures and information to assist the early warning and notification messages to responsible emergency management authorities. The responsible institutions for emergency situation management are presented in Fig. 1. The roles of the main institutions are as following Ministry of Environment and Water Management represents the highest level of the system. Its role is to - Develop the national strategy for protection against...

Hadjamberdiev V Shablovsky and V Ponomarev

Central Asia NGOs Network Water and Pollution, P.B. 1451, Bishkek 720040, Kyrgyzstan Abstract. There are over 5,000 mountain lakes in the region, and 724 of them can potentially destroy villages and farmland. In the case of Alpine lakes, failure can produce discharges containing many stones, which have a large destructive potential. Several cases of such disasters have occurred over the last 10 years - a tenth of the dwellings in several villages and two towns had been destroyed. Many water...

NI Alexeevskiy and NL Frolova

Department of Hydrology, Moscow State University, Russia Abstract. Analysis of dangerous hydrological processes is one of the essential components of future regional water resource systems planning. One of them is developed now for the Terek river basin. Contrasts of relief and climate create the prerequisites for the development of various dangerous natural processes, constantly endangering the safety of people. Climate changes during recent decades have been reflected in increasing...

The floods of

All Romania suffered floods of greater or smaller magnitude. According to the Report of the Environment and Water Management Ministry 2007 , the floods caused by excess water in the rivers, damage to or overtopping of dikes, and drainage on hillslopes affected 1,734 communities, the total value of damages exceeding 1.5 billion euros. The death toll was of 76 persons, and 93,976 houses and domestic annexes were damaged more than 650,000 ha of agricultural land was...

The water hammer

Water Hammer Pipe Failure

A water hammer is a pressure surge or wave caused by the kinetic energy of a fluid in motion when it is forced to stop or change direction suddenly. For example, if a valve is closed suddenly at the end of a pipeline, a water hammer wave propagates in the pipe. Water in a pipe has kinetic energy proportional to its mass times the square of the velocity of the water. The water hammer phenomenon over-pressurises the pipe due to transient changes in flow rate Samani and Khayatzadeh, 2002 Boulos et...

Education

O Enhance flood-related education for managers, decision makers and the public o Agriculturalists must be educated to ensure adequate response to changed conditions This report has been prepared in the light of the papers presented at the NATO Workshop and through working group interactions between many experts. The experts note, however, that there is not enough knowledge to make definitive statements, particularly in assigning weights to the various climatic and human drivers of change....

Warehouses with toxic wastage

There are many warehouses 16 storing uranium, 54 obsolete pesticides, 2 storing cyanide in our region situated on the banks of rivers. There was a release from a pesticides warehouse that killed fish in Son-Kul, which is a high-altitude lake 3,016 m above sea level, storage - 2.64 km3 in Kyrgyzstan TienShan in 1977. Some examples follow. There is a large waste warehouse containing cyanide from gold mining Kum-Tor area, 4,100 m above sea level, warehouse stores a total volume 100 million cubic...

Mathematical modelling of oil infiltration into soil for Assessment of undersurface water pollution

We have applied mathematical models describing oil penetration into soils as a result of accidents on railway and pipeline routes in the general case and for special conditions taking into account the specific properties of several types of soils found along the routes Davitashvili and Komurjishvili, 2002 Davitashvili, 2004 . The calculations were made for meadow-alluvial, sandy and sub-sandy soils. Numerical calculations were carried out during 180 days. Numerical calculations have shown that...

Conclusion

The experiences and the research findings presented above provide ample evidence for reducing water demand as an effective strategy to increase water security in a wide variety of circumstances. Over and above the shorter term efficiency approach of demand management, water soft paths offer greater savings, and hence greater water security, within the context of a longer term search for a triple bottom line - economic growth, social equity, ecological sustainability. Though many institutional...

Bondyrev and ED Tsereteli

1 Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ministry of Education and Sciences of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia 2Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources of Georgia, Centre of Monitoring and Forecasting, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. The specifications of distribution and character of dynamic hazards due to water processes is reviewed in the paper floods, mudflows, landslides, and swamping. The assessment of the damage caused by these processes is also described. Keywords Floods,...

Polytoxicosis of fish

In order to select priority indicators of ecological status, seasonal surveys of the Amu water and fish quality were undertaken in 2002. Bio-indication was combined with physical and chemical methods IR and UV spectroscopy, gas and liquid chromatography, atomic-absorption spectrometry . Transboundary pollution of the Amu River from adjacent areas of China, wastes from power sources, river transportation and forest fires were the most important factors. To whom correspondence should be...

Danube river basin

Having its legal basis established since 1930, when the first law to protect natural monuments was passed, the study and protection of the natural assets in Romania saw a steady development until the 1960s, thereafter falling into neglect and being completely abandoned in the 1980s. A few To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail galatchi univ-ovidius.ro years after 1990, conservation activity experienced a revival. The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve was established, several...

References

Borlea, Gh.F., Brad, R., Merce, O. and Turcu, D. 2003 Wood energy in Romania, Annals of I.C.A.S., 46 321-326. Dumitru, M. et al., 2001 Country Report - Romania http www.icpa.ro fao_glwi . Gaspar, R., 2003 The role and contribution of the Forest Research and Management Institute in the establishment of the Romanian school for torrential watershed management. Annals of I.C.A.S., 46 377-383. Jelev, I., 2005 Can floods be controlled in Romanian 16 12-13. Ministry of Environment and Water...

Water treatment technique

The local problem of removing water hardness and organic contaminants can be solved by using special home and industrial water treatment systems based on developed fibrous sorbents with immobilized silver nanoparticles. Polyacrylonitrile PAN cloth with a surface density of 1.0 kg m2 and thickness of 10 mm was utilized as the raw material for making ion-exchange sorbents. Experiments by Khaydarov and Khaydarov 2006 have shown that the optimum condition for obtaining cation-exchange sorbents is...

FTIR spectroscopic characterization of Escherichia coli

Fourier-Transform Infrared FT-IR spectroscopy is a widely utilized technique for chemical analysis Johnston, 1991 . In soil microbial biomass, IR spectroscopy appeared useful in establishing the spectral fingerprints of different cell constituents, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acid Filip, 1978a, b . Time-consuming and difficult isolation of individual cell structural units can be omitted using this technique, when intact cells biomass are under investigation. Also, small...

Data used

The information needed by the user authorities, NGOs etc. should be delivered in short time with a good spatial resolution and integrated in a user-friendly cartographic environment. In order to obtain this kind of product different types of data have been used Topographic maps have been used to extract different types of info-layers Fig. 2 - Administrative elements national limits - border, administrative limits, localities . - Natural elements hydrographical network rivers, dykes, channels,...

AY Hoekstra

University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands Abstract. Import of water in virtual form, i.e. in the form of agricultural and industrial commodities, can be an effective means for water-scarce countries to preserve their domestic water resources. On the other hand, export of water-intensive commodities will increase the use and thus the scarcity of water in the exporting countries. Another likely effect of international trade is that it increases dependency of nations that are net importers...

Threats to biodiversity and naturalness

The threats to biodiversity can be divided into two groups one that results from human action outside the delta area, and the other due to unsustainable human action within the delta. Humans have modified the river discharge to the Delta, mainly by hydro-technical works, particularly dams, in upstream river sections. Such interventions were generally considered the most important threat recorded. These changes affect many aspects of the functioning of the Delta, but are particularly important...

Flooding In Afghanistan A Crisis E Hagen and JF Teufert

1 NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency NC3A , The Hague, The Netherlands 2 Department of Geography, National University Singapore NUS , Singapore Abstract. Afghanistan is a nation prone to natural disasters such as floods and droughts. Yet the severe floods of 2005 and 2006, which displaced thousands, highlighted how little was known about floods in the mountainous nation. At present no flood hazard maps exist pinpointing the location and extent of the inundated areas, nor are there...

Y Kamalov

NGO Union for Defense of the Aral Sea and Amudarya. 41 Prospekt Berdakh, Nukus, Uzbekistan Abstract. The matter of saving and restoring the Aral Sea is not currently on the agenda of any conference, project or scientific research supported by governmental bodies. There is a sort of silent agreement on the impossibility of saving the Sea. Meanwhile, there have been no attempts to save the Sea, not even one single approach has been taken. There is a demand for new arguments for saving and...

Introduction

Floods are the most important disaster affecting many countries in the world year after year. From the Romanian perspective, floods are among the most hazardous natural disasters in terms of human suffering and economic losses. The large floods that occurred in spring and summer of 2005, the worst ones in more than 40 years, affected large regions of Romania in the Timis county floods of 19-23 April , over 1,300 homes were damaged or destroyed, 3,800 people were evacuated and about 30,000 ha of...

Results and discussion

Torg Gard Clutch

INSTRUMENTAL ANALYTICAL APPROACHES FOR DETERMINATION OF TOTAL TOXICITY Usually different living organisms Crustacea, fish, algae, fungi, some vegetables and others are used to control total toxicity of environmental materials. An International Standard exists as the basis of the determination of some indexes of Daphnia immobilization ISO 6341 1996 E . Unfortunately, it is a very routine procedure. Other approaches which are used in practical applications are based on control of oxygen...

Floods in Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a country not only crippled by decades of conflict, but also prone to natural disasters. Earthquakes, droughts, floods and extreme snowfall affect the lives of thousands of Afghans. Severe flooding in 2005 and 2006 made thousands homeless, and destroyed agricultural land, livestock and infrastructure. In the post-Taliban era alone 50 floods have already been reported. However, except for short situational reports many of these floods are not well documented, thus little is known...

The hydrological model SEROS

The hydrological model SEROS combines the one-dimensional vertical land surface scheme SEWAB Surface Energy and Water Balance, Mengelkamp et al., 1999 and a horizontal routing scheme Lohmann et al., 1996 . The one-dimensional vertical land surface model SEWAB calculates the vertical water and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere and within the soil column for a land surface grid cell. The surface energy balance equation describes the equilibrium of net irradiance, latent...