Global Warming

Effects Of Climate Change In Seven Western Us Water Regions

Stockton and Boggess (1979) have used Langbein's empirical relation to estimate the effects of a climatic change on water in the 18 water regions of the conterminous United States defined by the U.S. Water Resources Council (1978). They find that a 2 C warming and a 10 reduction in precipitation would not have serious effects in the humid regions east of the 100th meridian. In the West, however, the impact would be severe on seven water regions the drainage basins of the Missouri,...

Specific Recommendations Of Working Groups

The recommended actions in the Conference Statement are mostly general in nature and common to a number of Conference Working Groups. The specific recommendations of the Working Groups are given in the following section. 1. Targets for energy supply should be directly related to reductions in C02 and other greenhouse gases. A challenging target would be to reduce the annual global C02 emissions by 20 by the year 2005 through improved energy efficiency, altered energy supply, and energy...

Empirical Relationships Among Precipitation Temperature And Stream Runoff

To assess the effects on the United States' water resources of probable climatic change we used the empirical relationship found by Langbein et al. 1949 among mean annual precipitation, temperature, and runoff. This was based on representative data from 22 drainage basins in the conterminous United States. Their relation in Figure 11.1 gives the estimated annual runoff for different values of mean annual precipitations and weighted mean annual temperatures. The latter were computed for each...

Senator Timothy E Wirth

In the United States, the year 1988 will be remembered for many historic events. The U.S. reached agreement on a major arms control treaty with the Soviet Union and the American people elected a new president. Yet, one can make a strong case that the most significant events were a string of natural disasters that took place in the summer of 1988. Throughout the summer, drought gripped vast segments of the North American continent. The parched conditions that ravaged crops on the most productive...

Effects Of Climatic Change On The Latitudinal Regions

Half of humanity inhabits coastal regions. The coastal zones are under great pressure due to accelerating population growth, pollution, flooding problems, and upland water diversion. In these regions the consequences of sea level rise will generally outweigh any direct temperature effects of climatic change, such as enhancement or reduction of fishery resources. In particular, a rise of sea level would, in many places, mean that high tides could penetrate further inland. In addition, the...

Future Greenhouse Warming

Projections of future warming are uncertain since future levels of use of carbon-based fuels are not known. The contemporary budgets of methane and nitrous oxides are not known, so projections of the contribution of these gases to future climatic shifts are even more uncertain than that of C02. However, over a relatively short interval of 50 years, 1980 to 2030, limits can be placed on expected climate variations on the assumption that there will be no radical shifts in the world's...

Lessons From The Past

The inhabitants of planet Earth are quietly conducting a gigantic environmental experiment. So vast and so sweeping will be its impacts that, were it brought before any responsible council for approval, it would be firmly rejected as having potentially dangerous consequences. Yet the experiment goes on with no significant interference from any jurisdiction or nation. The experiment in question is the release of C02 and other so-called greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. As these releases are...

Nitrous Oxide

Atmospheric levels of nitrous oxide (N20) began to increase with the advent of industrialization. The sources of nitrous oxide are not well understood. Between 3 and 4 million metric tons of NzO as nitrogen are thought to be produced annually from fossil fuel combustion, principally coal. The amount of nitrous oxide destroyed annually in the stratosphere is about 10 million metric tons. About 3.5 million metric tons accumulates annually in the atmosphere. Thus the total annual production is...

Ramanathan

Since the dawn of the industrial era, several trace gases have been increasing in the atmosphere. Recent advances in chemical measurements have helped document the rate of increase of the trace gas concentrations. The concentrations continue to increase at significant rates as shown in Figure 16.1 for carbon dioxide C02 , methane CH4 , Testimony given in hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, U.S. Senate, One-hundredth Congress, first session, on the Greenhouse Effect...

Syukuro Manabe

I would like to focus my presentation on the large-scale changes in soil wetness. These changes, which may have profound agricultural and other implications, have received increased emphasis in research activities at various institutions in North America and Europe. I will discuss this issue based upon the results references 1 and 2 from the mathematical models of climate developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of NOAA. The mathematical model of climate used for this study is a...

Effects Of Sea Level Rise

A rise in sea level of 1 or 2 m would permanently inundate wetlands and lowlands, accelerate coastal erosion, exacerbate coastal flooding, threaten coastal structures, and increase the salinity of estuaries and aquifers. Substantial research has been done on the implications of sea level rise for coastal erosion and wetlands, while relatively little work has been done in the other areas. The most direct impact of a rise in sea level is the inundation of areas that had been just above the water...

Conclusions

Despite the many uncertainties in future energy use, carbon cycle evolution, and production of trace gases, it appears highly probable that over the next 50 years anthropogenic activities will warm the earth's surface by 1-1.5 C. This warming will be superimposed on the half-degree warming of the last 100 years. These changes are larger than those that can be anticipated from natural variations and are of the same order or larger than those associated with the Holocene warming 6,000 years ago....

Causes Of Sea Level Rise

The worldwide average sea level depends primarily on a the shape and size of ocean basins, b the amount of water in the oceans, and c the average density of seawater. Subsidence, emergence, and other local factors can cause trends in relative sea level at particular locations to differ from trends in global sea level. Hays and Pitman 1973 analyzed fossil records and concluded that over the last 100 million years, changes in mid-ocean ridge systems have caused sea level to rise and fall over 300...

James E Hansen

The earth is warmer in 1988 than at any time in the history of instrumental measurements. The global warming is now sufficiently large that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship to the greenhouse effect. This statement was presented to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources on 23 June 1988. It is based largely on recent studies carried out by S. Lebedeff, D. Rind, I. Fung, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, G. Russell, and R Stone at the NASA...

Trends In Other Warming Gases

Historical trends of other anthropogenically produced gases, including methane, nitrous oxides, and ozone, are poorly known, in part because recognition of their significance to climate change has come only in the last decade. Freons present a different story they are manufactured gases and came into major use only during the 1960s. Production data are readily available, except for Eastern Bloc countries and China, and since freons are very long-lived in the atmosphere, production data alone...

Carbon Dioxide

The atmospheric concentration of C02 has increased nearly 30 within the last 100 years. Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of fossil fuel, deforestation, and as a consequence of global warming itself. Roughly 4 metric tons of C02 is produced per ton of carbon that is burned. Fossil fuel combustion and forest clearing have added at least 170 billion metric tons of carbon to the atmosphere since 1850. Between 5.5 and 6 billion metric tons of carbon is now...

Roger R Revelle and Paul E Waggoner

In this chapter we show that warmer air temperatures and a slight decrease in precipitation would probably severely reduce both the quantity and the quality of water resources in the western United States. Similar effects can be expected in many water-short regions elsewhere in the world. We have not attempted to estimate these, primarily because we do not know enough to be able to do so. But we hope that hydrologists of other countries will be stimulated by our calculations to investigate the...

Changes In Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration In Historical Times

Historical Pics Global Warming

Remarkably, carbon dioxide was the first constituent of the earth's atmosphere to be identified. Joseph Black published the discovery during 1754 in a University of Edinburgh thesis. By 1870, quantitative measurements developed which compare in precision with today's measurements. Interpretation of early observations is made difficult not by inadequacies in analytical chemistry but because they were not undertaken to measure changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Sampling for this...

What Can Be Done

The objective becomes stabilization of the temperature of the earth, at least insofar as the temperature is being affected by the heat-trapping gases. Stabilization will require as the first step the stabilization of the composition of the atmosphere. The current rate of accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere is about 1.5 ppm per year or about 3.0 billion tons. The actual amount transferred into the oceans is not known nor do we know the actual total release of carbon into the atmosphere. The...

Global Warming The Issue Impacts Responses

Humanity is conducting an unintended, uncontrolled, globally pervasive experiment whose ultimate consequences could be second only to nuclear war. The Earth's atmosphere is being changed at an unprecedented rate by pollutants resulting from human activities, inefficient and wasteful fossil fuel use and the effects of rapid population growth in many regions. These changes are already having harmful consequences over many parts of the globe. Toronto Conference statement, June 1988 This analogy...

Climate Change And Waterresource Systems

Planning and construction of major water-resource systems have a time constant of 30 to 50 years. In the past, these activities have been based on the explicit assumption of unchanging climate. The probably serious economic and social consequences of a carbon dioxide-induced climatic change within the next 50 to 100 years warrant careful consideration by planners of ways to create more robust and resilient water-resource systems that will, insofar as possible, mitigate these effects. Back, W....