Climate of opinion the agendasetting role of

the mass media 68

4.1 Introduction: agenda-setting 68

4.2 A note on methodology 69

4.3 Public opinion and international environmental regimes 70

4.4 The importance of the media in shaping public opinion 71 Direct effects 72 From direct to indirect 77 Indirect efects 78

4.5 Media constructions of global warming 79 The scientific dimension 79 Impacts 82 The economic dimension 84 Declining attention to the international 85

4.6 Explanations and consequences 86 The political economy approach 8 6 Social dimensions 8 8 The culturalist approach 93

4.7 Conclusions 94

5 Climate for business: the political influence of the fossil fuel lobbies 96

5.1 Introduction 96

5.2 Structural factors/bargaining assets 98

5.3 Observable and direct influence 101 Agenda-setting 102 Negotiation-bargaining 106 Implementation 112

5.4 Compatibility of agendas 114

5.5 Cross-issue influence 116

5.6 The un-politics of climate change 118

5.7 Conclusion 120

6 Climate for change: en„ironmental NGOs 123

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Global warming and environmental pressure groups 124

6.3 Scope of the analysis 126

6.4 Structural factors/bargaining assets 127

6.5 Agenda-setting 128

6.6 Negotiation-bargaining 136

6.7 Implementation 149

6.8 Conclusions 152

7. Conclusion: states, NGOs and the future of global climate politics 154

7.1 Key themes 154

7.2 Review of chapter conclusions 158

7.3 The NGO project and international relations 161

7.4 Towards an alternative perspective 166

7.5 From transnationalism to IPE 167

7.6 Conclusion 171

Appendix A : List of abbreviations 173 Appendix B: Chronology of the international response to the issue of climate change 176

References 179

Index 215

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