In many cases, it will be unclear whether a particular change is financially justifiable or not, but a certain investment will be necessary in order to facilitate some other change. In order, for example, to reduce commuting by car in large city regions, it may be necessary to increase the density of train and bus lines and the frequency of departures in the transportation systems. In some cases, as has been dealt with above, the necessary investment may clearly be financially justifiable, in other cases it may not be justifiable short-term. In order to achieve targets for reduction of the emission of carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gases, certain investments will be necessary. In the way that was described for the Oresund Bridge between Sweden and Denmark, it will in some cases take some time until commuters have adjusted their patterns of travel and general lifestyles to the new transportation opportunities.
Other savings alternatives may also require a number of different activities in combination. As the number of electric cars and chargeable hybrids increases, the load on the electricity grid will increase. In order to accommodate for this, there will be a need to expand electricity production, possibly launch campaigns to save electricity in households and companies, to reduce load by launching intelligent boilers in homes, freezers and other appliances that could switch off during peak hours. All these and other actions, which may be necessary in order to transfer energy use from petroleum to electricity, may not be financially justifiable in themselves. The overall goal of reducing emissions by switching oil use to renewable energy sources will be so important, that some investments that are not financially justifiable will need to be performed all the same.
24.3 PROMISING TECHNOLOGIES THAT NEED LAST FEW STEPS OF DEVELOPMENT = FINALIZE AND EXPAND IF FINANCIALLY JUSTIFIABLE OR NECESSARY TO REMOVE "BOTTLENECK"
Many small adjustments to existing technologies and products will be possible and necessary in order to make use of new alternative energy sources. One example will be the adaptation of car and truck engines in order to use the new fuel DME, which has, by Volvo, been given a very favorable evaluation, as seen from seven different perspectives. The production of DME is not very complicated, and it may be possible to start production within a relatively short period of time, but it will take time to increase capacity and to launch trucks that will be able to use this fuel.
There may be other technologies that could be developed within the next few years, if only sufficient resources are assigned to the project, and a tight plan is developed. In addition to technologies that are already available, we will, for the medium term, need both additional technologies for electricity production and new engine and fuel technologies for transportation. The demand for electricity, as has been indicated above, will vary depending on how we choose to solve our future transportation needs.
Examples of possible new technologies for electricity generation that could be developed to economic viability during the next few years could be wave energy. It may be the case that the cost of photovoltaic panels could decrease substantially with increasing demand. All the different opportunities to reduce energy consumption and to transfer energy use to renewable sources need to be evaluated and analyzed both from the point of view of investment needs, cost per unit of energy, generation capacity and a number of other factors.
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Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.