Specialization and Outsourcing

Twenty years ago, before time compression, BPR and e-business, companies consisted of a large number of different functions. These functions were not very clearly defined inside companies, and the interfaces between companies were also unclear. It often was as if companies had been organized in a slightly random fashion. Each company had also developed certain unique, competitive advantages based on its history and different factors in its environment. One factor that gave rise to certain...

Cellulose Based Biofuels

As indicated above, we need to base an increasing amount of our future energy needs on biofuels, produced from cellulose. We already possess a number of alternative fuels that could be used, using different technologies, from distillation of ethanol, to the production of a number of different hydrocarbons from wood. In the case of methanol, we already have a process, which is available for the large-scale production of this product. As mentioned already, methanol can be used as an additive to...

Grain Based Biofuels

The primary use of grain in the future will have to be for food. We will not be able to set aside large areas of arable land for the long-term agriculture of energy crops. Due to decreasing global production volumes of grain, and the deteriorating growing conditions in many areas of the world, we may, instead, have to use more land for agriculture, without using very much of it for fuel. Grain-based ethanol could be used as an interim solution to create a demand for new alternative fuels, and...

Conclusion

The market-based approach to energy systems transformation, which is currently being pursued, will not suffice to create the large-scale transformation that we need. All the necessary financial resources will not be provided by the market on a timely and voluntary basis. A number of planned measures will be necessary in order to facilitate the necessary investments for the change program. Energy systems are, and the transformation of them, would be, in general, more complex than many people...

The Tools Of Program Or Project Management

As we move from the level of visions and values, we need to realize that a change process that needs to encompass the whole of society is, by definition, complex. In order for all streams and projects within a program to be managed in the same way, according to the same principles and values, a set of tools for program and project management needs to be put in place and used by project managers and participants. Such a set of tools will reduce the risk of individual idiosyncrasies of managers,...

Box The Case of the Oresund Bridge

In the year 2000, after more than a century of discussions between Denmark and Sweden, and a construction project spanning several years, the 20-km Oresund Bridge was opened. This bridge connects the capital of Denmark and the surrounding area with over two million people, with Malmo and a number of smaller cities in Sweden, with, altogether, one million people. The project was a tremendous engineering achievement, consisting of the construction of one entirely new island in the strait of...

Planned Decision Making in Market Economies

As we have seen above, the US economy was turned into a war economy in less than 1 year, and within 3.5 years of this decision, hundreds of thousands of airplanes, tanks, ships and other vessels and vehicles had been produced. During the same period of time, millions of uniforms had been sewn and large numbers of boots, rifles and other necessary materials had been produced as well. In the case of the Apollo program, after President John F. Kennedy's decision to put a man on the Moon, it took...

Goals And Key Figures Item in the list of tools for project managers and participants

It has already been argued above that goals are critical in a change process, such as the transition to an energy-efficient future. It is crucial that the participants can focus on common goals and objectives. For people outside of the project, goals make the change process easy to understand and it becomes possible for managers of a process to communicate goals and the steps that need to be taken in order to reach those goals. The goal of producing 50,000 airplanes per year during the Second...

Product Life Cycle Analysis

Energy consumption patterns differ between products. Some products, such as aluminum and paper pulp, require large amounts of energy in the production process. Other products require much energy in distribution, and many products consume the major part of the energy during the lifetime of the products, as is the case with production equipment in industry, cars, freezers, washing machines and other household appliances. A number of products, such as batteries, require substantial amounts of...

Structural Capital in Organizations

The development of structural capital in organizations is, according to my point of view, an amalgam of a number of different theoretical subjects, starting with organization theory, covering strategic planning, IT and operational efficiency. In a classic passage in The Wealth of Nations 1776 , economist Adam Smith describes how the division of labor in a pin factory dramatically contributed to efficiency in pin manufacturing. This division of labor represents an early example of structural...

Tidal Power

Tidal power could be made into an abundant and reliable energy source around the coasts of many countries. In the same way, as in the case of hydroelectric power, the technology for the production of tidal power is based on containing large volumes of water that rises through the tide, in large basins, in order to release the water through turbines and, by doing this, generate electricity. The tide is caused by the regular movements of the Moon in relation to the Earth, which makes this source...

Biofuels

The adoption of biofuels grows very rapidly, but from a very low level. Less than 1 percent of our energy needs are supplied by biofuels. There is substantial optimism regarding the future of these fuels, but a large amount of analysis remains to be performed in order to determine their role in the energy mixes of the near-term, medium-term and long-term future. As we will see below, there are biofuels with better prospects than ethanol that is currently expanding very rapidly in many markets...