Australian Government, Geosciences Australia: Available at: (accessed 2/3/07).

2PV Baker, Megarry's Manual of the Law of Real Property, 5th edition, Stevens & Sons, London, 1975, p10.

3Macquarie Concise Dictionary, Revised Third Edition, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, NSW, 2005, p1248.

4Macquarie Concise Dictionary, n 3, p1250.

5Mabo v. Queensland (No. 2) [1992] HCA 23; (1992) 175 CLR 1 at 47.

6Mabo v. Queensland (No. 2) [1992] HCA 23; (1992) 175 CLR 1 at 50.

7For example: Randwick Corporation v Rutledge (1959) 102 CLR 54; Wade v New South Wales Rutile Mining Co Pty Ltd (1969) 121 CLR 177; New South Wales v Commonwealth (1975) 135 CLR 337.

8For example: Milirrpum v Nabalco (1971) 17 FLR 141.

9See on leases generally: Maudsley R H & Burn E H, Land Law Cases and Materials , 4th edition, Butterworths, London, 1980, ch 8; Tan PL, Webb E, Wright D, Land Law , 2nd edition, Butterworths, Australia, 2002, ch 16.

10Australian Government, Geosciences Australia: Available at: (accessed 13/3/06).

11 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Available at:[email protected]/46d1bc47ac9d0c7bca256c470025ff87/ F7635B38F792374BCA256DEA000539DA?opendocument. (accessed 2/3/07)

12Australian Natural Resource Atlas: Available at: (accessed 2/3/07).

13Butt P, Land Law ,5th edition, Lawbook Co, Australia ,2006, p10.

14For example, in Queensland the Mineral Resources Act 1989, s8 provides for the Crown's property in minerals, under s8 (1) gold on or below the surface is the property of the Crown. Under s8 (2) (a) and (b) coal on or below the surface is the property of the Crown though there are exceptions depending on when the land was alienated. Under s8 (3) all minerals on or below the surface are the property of the Crown but again there are exceptions depending on when the land was alienated.

15For example, s22 (1) (c) Acts Interpretation Act 1901 (Cth) and s 36 Acts Interpretation Act 1954 (Qld).

17Queensland Department of Natural Resources & Mines, "Managing State Rural Leasehold Land: a discussion paper" 2001, p 4.

18Wolfe PM, Murphy DG, Wright RG, "Report of a review of Land Policy and Administration in Queensland," Land Policy and Administration Review Committee, Queensland.

19Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Water, "State Rural Leasehold Land Strategy" Available at: (accessed 19/12/06).

20See n 19.

22See n 19.

23See Bates G, Environmental Law in Australia, 5th edition, Butterworths, Australia, 2002, p 362. Gunningham N and Grabosky P (eds) Smart Regulation: Designing Environmental Policy ,Clarendon Press, 1998, Ch 5. Australian Conservation Foundation, "Land Clearing in Queensland: The Problem and the Solution", at (viewed 22 May 2007). AK Krocken-berger, RL Kitching, and SM Turton, "Environmental Crisis: Climate Change and Terrestrial Biodiversity in Queensland", Rainforest Cooperative Research Centre, available at climateChangeRR.htm (viewed 22 May 2007).

24The Australia Institute, "Land-use Change and Australia's Kyoto Target", Submission to Senate Environment References Committee Inquiry into Australia's response to global warming (1999). Available on (viewed 13 July 2005).

25Queensland, Legislative Assembly, Debates (24 May 2005) pp 1521-1522, per the Hon JW Seeney.

26Property Rights Australia, available at: (viewed 22 May 2007).

27Schwarten E, "City March Organised as Queensland Parliament Sits: 350 Protest Tree Clearing Laws", The Morning Bulletin, Queensland, 7 October 2005.

28Commonwealth Property Protection Association, available at: (viewed 22 May 2007).

29Kenny P, " Enforcement of Vegetation Management Legislation" Paper presented to the Queensland Environmental Law Association, March 2005.

30Productivity Commission, Report No 29, Impacts of Native Vegetation and Biodiversity Regulations (Melbourne, 2004), available at: (viewed 15 December 2006).

31 The defendant's solicitor, Roger Baker, kindly supplied information on the case of R v Acton 2004, heard in the Rockhampton Magistrates Court, on 15 July 2005.

32McKay v Doonan [2005] QDC 311 2005. Biographical Note

Jo KEHOE is law lecturer at Central Queensland University.

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