Visualizing Continental Glacial Features

Figure 8.23 Continental glaciers carve out vast regions of landscape, leaving behind distinctive features such as kames, eskers, drumlins, and moraines.

Retreating glacier

Continental Glacier Features Kames

Kames are short cone-shaped mounds of Eskers are long ridges of sorted deposits. Drumlins are shaped as the glacier moves sorted deposits. They are shaped from out- They are shaped from outwash left as gla- over old moraines. They are unsorted. wash left as glaciers recede. ciers recede.

CO^f®1 ,n ^CHjfc! To explore more about glacial features, visit qlencoe.com.

Earth v. Science J

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Section 3 • Glaciers 211

(l)R.B. Colton/USGS, (c)Tom Bean/CORBIS, (r)Gustav Verderber/Visuals Unlimited

Section 3 • Glaciers 211

(l)R.B. Colton/USGS, (c)Tom Bean/CORBIS, (r)Gustav Verderber/Visuals Unlimited

Figure 8.24 These kettle lakes in North Dakota are a result of glacial retreat. Describe how you might be able to locate kettles on a topographic map.

Figure 8.24 These kettle lakes in North Dakota are a result of glacial retreat. Describe how you might be able to locate kettles on a topographic map.

Glacial Geology

Vocabulary

Science usage v. Common usage Kettle

Science usage: a steep-sided depression formed by a glacier

Common usage: a metallic pot used for cooking

Glacial lakes Sometimes, a large block of ice breaks off a continental glacier and the surrounding area is covered by sediment. When the ice block melts, it leaves behind a depression called a kettle hole. After the ice block melts, the kettle hole fills with water from precipitation and runoff to form a kettle lake. Kettles or kettle lakes, such as those shown in Figure 8.24, are common in New England, New York, and Wisconsin. With valley glaciers, cirques can also fill with water, and they become cirque lakes. When a terminal moraine blocks off a valley, the valley fills with water to form a lake. Moraine-dammed lakes include the Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes of northern New York, which are long and narrow.

Mass movements, wind, and glaciers all contribute to the changing of Earth's surface. These processes erode landforms constantly, and in many ways, they also impact human populations and activities.

Section 8.3 Assessment

Section Summary

I Glaciers are large moving masses of ice that form near Earth's poles and in mountain areas.

I Glaciers can be classified as valley glaciers or continental glaciers.

I Glaciers modify the landscape by erosion and deposition.

I Features formed by glaciers include U-shaped valleys, hanging valleys, moraines, drumlins, and kettles.

Understand Main Ideas

1. mandfffll Describe two examples of how glaciers modify landscapes.

2. Explain how glaciers form.

3. Compare and contrast the characteristics of valley glaciers and continental glaciers.

4. Differentiate among different glacial depositional features. Think Critically

5. Evaluate the evidence of past glaciers that can be found on Earth today.

6. Infer whether valley glaciers or continental glaciers have shaped more of the landscape of the United States.

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7. Deduce how you might distinguish a lake formed in a cirque and a lake formed in a kettle.

212 Chapter 8 • Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers

Self-Check Quiz glencoe.com

212 Chapter 8 • Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers

Self-Check Quiz glencoe.com

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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