Study Guide

BIG (Idea

The variety of substances on Earth results from the way that atoms are arranged and combined.


Matter atomic number (p. 62) electron (p. 61) element (p. 60) ion (p. 64) isotope (p. 62) mass number (p. 62) matter (p. 60) neutron (p. 60) nucleus (p. 60) proton (p. 60)

Key Concepts

MUUWJdSa Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter.

• Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

• An element consists of atoms that have a specific number of protons in their nuclei.

• Isotopes of an element differ by the number of neutrons in their nuclei.

• Elements with full outermost energy levels are highly unreactive.

• Ions are electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms.

Section 3.2

Combining Matter acid (p. 71) base (p. 72) chemical bond (p. 67) chemical reaction (p. 70) compound (p. 66) covalent bond (p. 67) ionic bond (p. 68) metallic bond (p. 68) molecule (p. 67) solution (p. 71)

MA^dQEQ Atoms combine through electric forces, forming molecules and compounds.

• Atoms of different elements combine to form compounds.

• Covalent bonds form from shared electrons between atoms.

• Ionic compounds form from the attraction of positive and negative ions.

• There are two types of mixtures—heterogeneous and homogeneous.

• Acids are solutions containing hydrogen ions. Bases are solutions containing hydroxide ions.

Section 3.3

State of Matter condensation (p. 75) crystalline structure (p. 73) evaporation (p. 74) glass (p. 73) plasma (p. 74) sublimation (p. 75)

i man4IdBS All matter on Earth and in the universe occurs in the form of a solid, a liquid, a gas, or plasma.

• Changes of state involve thermal energy.

• The law of conservation of matter states that matter cannot be created or destroyed.

• The law of conservation of energy states that energy is neither created nor destroyed.

78 Chapter 3 • Study Guide Seieneq^ Vocabulary PuzzleMaker

Fill in the blank with the correct vocabulary term from the Study Guide.

1. The electrically neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom are called_.

2. The ber of of an element is equal to the num-__ in the nucleus of its atoms.

3. Atoms of an element that differ by their mass numbers are called_.

Explain how both terms in each set below are related.

4. ionic, covalent

5. homogeneous mixture, solution

Arrange each set of vocabulary terms into a meaningful and true sentence.

7. solid, glass

8. molecules, ions, plasma, gas

9. evaporation, condensation 10. electrons, metallic bond

Understand Key Concepts

Use the figure below to answer Questions 11 to 13.

11. What is the atomic number of this atom?

12. How many valence electrons does this atom have?

13. Which element does this atom represent? (Refer to the periodic table of the elements in Figure 3.2.)

A. helium

B. beryllium

C. lithium

D. nitrogen

14. What ionic compound is formed by the ions Al3+ and O2?

A. Al3O2 C. Al2O3

Use the figure below to answer Question 15.

15. The figure shows the arrangement of atoms in a substance. What is this substance?

B. glass

C. liquid

D. solid

16. Which is an example of a heterogeneous mixture?

A. coffee

B. soil

C. gelatin

17. During the process of sublimation, into what is ice converted?

A. hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions

B. hydrogen

C. water

D. water vapor

18. Many musical instruments are made of brass, which is a mixture of copper and zinc atoms. What is brass an example of?

A solid solution

B. ionic compound

C. chemical reaction

D. base

Earih j

Setone v Chapter Test

Chapter J


19. What happens to the thermal energy of a gas when it condenses and forms a liquid?

A. It is released.

B. It is absorbed.

C. It increases in temperature.

D. It decreases in temperature.

20. What kind of ion characterizes an acid?

A. oxygen ion

B. negative ion

C. hydroxide ion

D. hydrogen ion

Constructed Response

21. Explain why table salt does not conduct electricity.

22. Explain why gases such as neon and argon do not react with other elements.

23. Illustrate a model atom of potassium (K), indicating the positive charge of the nucleus and the idealized positions of the electrons in the various energy levels. Is potassium a metal or nonmetal? Refer to the periodic table of the elements in Figure 3.2.

Use the figure below to answer Questions 24 and 25.





1 0 H v

Na u

K °








24. Detect What do these elements have in common?

25. Explain why the atomic masses of these elements are not whole numbers.

26. Distinguish which kind of chemical bond produces a solid that readily conducts heat and electricity.

27. Compare and contrast the physical properties of the elements helium and neon.

Use the figure below to answer Questions 28 and 29.

28. Identify the type of bond shown in the figure. Explain your reasoning.

29. Compare this bond to a metallic bond. Use an illustration to clarify your answer.

30. Deduce what the difference would be between water molecules containing deuterium and those containing ordinary hydrogen atoms. (Hint: Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen with mass number two. It forms the same chemical compounds as other hydrogen atoms, including water.)

31. Evaluate the statement: Plasma is usually hotter than gas.

Think Critically

Use the figure below to answer Question 32.

Use the figure below to answer Question 32.

Konfiguracja Elektronowa Litowc

32. Deduce The figure shows an atom of carbon-14. This radioactive isotope decays by converting one of its neutrons to a proton. What element and isotope is produced by the radioactive decay of carbon-14?

SD Chapter 3 • Assessment


Chapter Test

Chapter J Agrement

33. Illustrate Use an illustration to show why water is effective in dissolving ionic solids such as table salt.

34. Group and list some of the properties that all metals have in common.

35. Assess the correctness of the following statement: Snow that covers the ground can disappear on cold days even when the temperature remains below 0°C.

36. Arrange When hydrochloric acid (HCl) is added to the sedimentary rock limestone (CaCO3), carbon dioxide (CO2), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and water (H2O) are given off. Arrange the chemical compounds listed above into a balanced equation that shows this chemical reaction.

37. Hypothesize Earth's upper atmosphere—the ionosphere—conducts electricity. Hypothesize about the state of matter in the ionosphere.

38. CAREERS IN EARTH SCIENCE Assess the importance of understanding chemical reactions in order to interpret the conditions of rocks and minerals that are present on other planets.

39. Estimate Air at sea level has a density of 0.13 g/L. Estimate how much air, in kilograms, fills your classroom. (Hint: to start, multiply the length, width, and height of your classroom to calculate the room's volume.)

Concept Mapping

40. Create a concept map using the following terms or phrases: ionic bond, covalent bond, metallic bond, shared electrons, gain or lose electrons, a sea of electrons, molecule, and compound.

Challenge Question

41. An atom is mostly empty space. A typical atom has a diameter of 1010 m with a nucleus of diameter 1014 m. To visualize this, enlarge this atom by a factor of 108 (100 million) so that its nucleus has the size of a marble (1 cm). What would be the diameter of this enlarged atom? Would this atom fit into a football field?

Additional Assessment

42. CES2EE> Earth Science Prepare a news release reporting on the discovery of a new chemical element. The element has 121 protons in its nucleus. Be sure to include the characteristics of this element and its location in the periodic table.

Document-Based Questions

Data obtained from: Mineral resource of the month: magnesium. Geotimes: 50, no. 11 (November 2005): 57.

Magnesium is lightweight and has a high strength-to-weight ratio. It constitutes about 2 percent of the crust and its concentration in seawater is 0.13 percent. Magnesium is present in more than 60 minerals and is produced from magnesium-bearing ores, sea-water, and brines.

Magnesium is made into an alloy with aluminum to increase strength and corrosion resistance, especially in beverage cans. Its light weight makes it useful in aircrafts, cars, chain saws, lawn mowers, and other machine parts. Annual world magnesium production is 584,000 metric tons. China produces the most at 426,000 metric tons. Yearly production in the United States, is 43,000 metric tons and U.S. consumption is 140,000 metric tons per year. Canada, China, Israel, and Russia supply 92percent of U.S. magnesium imports. Recycling covers about 15 percent of U.S. magnesium consumption.

43. Determine the amount of magnesium in 1 m3 of seawater. Express your answer in kilograms.

44. Analyze and explain the role of magnesium in the manufacture of cars and beverage cans.

45. Compare and contrast the production of magnesium in the United States and other countries. How does U.S. dependence on imports affect these other countries?

Cumulative Review

46. Why is the concept of time and scale in the study of Earth science difficult to understand? (Chapter 1)

47. In the collection of data, measurements must follow what general guidelines? (Chapter 1)

Chapter Test

Chapter 3 • Assessment 81

Chapter 3 • Assessment 81

Standardized Test Practice

Multiple Choice

Use the table below to answer Questions 1-3.

Atomic Structure


Atomic Number

Atomic Mass



















1. If titanium has 22 protons in its nucleus, how many neutrons are present in the nucleus of its most common isotope?

2. If the most common isotope of scandium has 24 neutrons in its nucleus, how many protons does scandium have?

3. If calcium's most common isotope has 20 neutrons in its nucleus, how many neutrons can be found in another naturally occurring isotope of calcium?

4. Determine the number of valence electrons that oxygen has.

5. How should a city that is located between two time zones establish a time?

A. Have two different times within the same city.

B. Allow the people to choose what time zone they want to go by.

C. Move the time zone split outside of the city.

D. Divide the time in half to split the difference of the two times.

Use the illustration below to answer Questions 6-8.

6. In a cup, an ice cube melts in liquid water. Which is true at the moment the ice melts?

A. The water has less thermal energy than the ice.

B. The water has more thermal energy than the ice.

C. The water is at a higher temperature than the ice.

D. The water is at the same temperature as the ice.

7. According to the illustration, what happens to water molecules when water is heated?

A. Their energy levels decrease.

B. They move farther apart.

C. They move more slowly.

D. They stop moving.

8. In order for a liquid to change to a gaseous state, what must it reach?

A. its freezing point

B. its condensation point

C. its melting point

D. its boiling point

9. Which is the most acidic?

82 Chapter 3 • Assessment

Standardized Test Practice

Short Answer

Use the graph below to answer Questions 10-12.

Heating Curve


Guided Practice Thermal Energy Images
Thermal energy

10. The diagram represents a sample of water. What does it demonstrate?

11. At which point does the water have the least amount of thermal energy?

12. What do the level lines in the diagram represent?

13. Differentiate between a theory and a hypothesis.

14. Why would a geologic map be important to a scientist studying earthquakes?

15. Does silicon have any isotopes? Explain your answer.

16. Ethical scientific researchers accurately report the data on which they base their conclusions. Why is this important?

Reading for Comprehension

Anthocyanin Pigments

Red cabbage contains a pigment molecule called flavin (an anthocyanin). This water-soluble pigment is also found in apple skin, plums, poppies, cornflowers, and grapes. Acidic solutions will turn anthocyanin a red color. Neutral solutions result in a purplish color. Basic solutions appear in greenish-yellow. Therefore, it is possible to determine the pH of a solution based on the color it turns the anthocyanin pigments in red cabbage juice.

How to make red cabbage pH indicator. About: Chemistry. (Online resource accessed February 12, 2007.)

17. How does red cabbage act as an acid/base indicator?

A. Its pigment changes color based on the acid or base with which it comes in contact.

B. Its pigment will not change when it comes into contact with a neutral solution.

C. It always stays red.

D. Its pigment releases water when it comes in contact with an acid or base.

18. What can be inferred from this passage?

A. Red cabbage is the only food that can act as an indicator of acids and bases.

B. Anthocyanin pigments in red cabbage juice change color when exposed to acids or bases.

C. It is safe to eat the cabbage after using it for an acid/base experiment.

D. The change in color does not indicate an acid or base.

19. What color does the cabbage become when exposed to a base?

A. purplish color C. blue color

B. red color D. greenish-yellow color


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Review Section . . .
















Standardized Test Practice

Chapter 3 • Assessment 83

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  • eustorgio schiavone
    Does silicon have any isotopes?
    8 years ago
  • Anitra
    Which is an example of a heterogeneous mixture a. soil b. acid c. base d. coffee?
    8 years ago
  • Hiewan
    Does silicon have any isotopes explain?
    8 years ago
  • delinda
    What is brass an example of solid solution, ionic compound, chemical reaction, or base?
    8 years ago
  • johannes
    How would I draw a 3D picture of carbon with protons, electrons and neutrons labeled?
    8 years ago
  • ambretta
    Which is an example of heterogenous mixture a. coffee b.soil c.gelatin d.air?
    6 years ago
  • selamawit
    Which kind of chemical bond produces a solid that readily conducts heat and electricity?
    1 year ago

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