Section Assessment

Solar Power Design Manual

Do It Yourself Solar Energy

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Section Summary

I Earth's atmosphere is composed of several gases, primarily nitrogen and oxygen, and also contains small particles.

I Earth's atmosphere consists of five layers that differ in their compositions and temperatures.

I Solar energy reaches Earth's surface in the form of visible light and infrared waves.

I Solar energy absorbed by Earth's surface is transferred as thermal energy throughout the atmosphere.

Understand Main Ideas

1. iman4BHB Rank the gases in the atmosphere in order from most abundant to least abundant.

2. Name the four types of particles found in the atmosphere.

3. Compare and contrast the five layers that make up the atmosphere.

4. Explain why temperature increases with height in the stratosphere.

5. Compare how solar energy is absorbed and emitted by Earth's surface.

Think Critically

6. Predict whether a pot of water heated from the top would boil more quickly than a pot of water heated from the bottom. Explain your answer.

7. Conclude What might surface temperatures be like on a planet with no atmosphere?

■Miiiw^ Earth Science

8. In the troposphere, temperature decreases with height at an average rate of 6.5°C/km. If temperature at 2.5 km altitude is 7.0°C, what is the temperature at 5.5 km altitude?

288 Chapter 11 • Atmosphere

Self-Check Quiz

Interactive Figure To see an animation of conduction, convection, and radiation, visit

288 Chapter 11 • Atmosphere



I Identify three properties of the atmosphere and how they interact. I Explain why atmospheric properties change with changes in altitude.

Review Vocabulary density: the mass per unit volume of a material

New Vocabulary temperature inversion humidity saturation relative humidity dew point latent heat

Brian Warming
Figure 11.9 Temperature can be measured in degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or in kelvin. The Kelvin scale starts at 0 K, which corresponds to -273°C and -459°F.

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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