jronment, and the Universe interactive Student edition

Mindmapping Geology Mindmapping Geology

interactive Student edition

Glfiitcoe Scjence

"Cieiicoe Science —


Geolo: - , he Environment, and the Universe

Glfiitcoe Scjence

Dinah Zike Goegraphy


Francisco Borrero • Frances Scelsi Hess • Juno Hsu Gerhard Kunze • Stephen A. Leslie • Stephen Letro Michael Manga • Len Sharp • Theodore Snow • Dinah Zike National Geographic


Francisco Borrero • Frances Scelsi Hess • Juno Hsu Gerhard Kunze • Stephen A. Leslie • Stephen Letro Michael Manga • Len Sharp • Theodore Snow • Dinah Zike National Geographic



New York, New York Columbus, Ohio Chicago, Illinois Woodland Hills, California

(t, c)Getty Images, (b)Paul Chesley/Getty Images

Paul Chesley Images

About the Photo: The lava photo on the cover was taken in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the big island of Hawaii. The lava in the photo is flowing from active vents on the flank of Kilauea volcano. When lava flows into the sea, sulfuric acid in the lava mixes with chlorine in the water to form a mist of water vapor and hydrochloric acid.

Mc Graw

Glencoe r mmjmmm, m

Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher.

The National Geographic features were designed and developed by the National Geographic's Children's Books and Education Division. Copyright © National Geographic. The name "National Geographic" and the Yellow Border Rectangle are trademarks of National Geographic and their use, without prior written permission, is strictly prohibited.

Send all inquires to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027

ISBN-13: 978-0-07-874636-9 ISBN-10: 0-07-874636-1

Printed in the United States of America

Contents in Brief

Student Guide

Reading for Information xxii

Scavenger Hunt xxv

Earth Science 2

1 The Nature of Science 4

2 Mapping Our World 28

Unit 2

Composition of Earth 56

3 Matter and Change 58

4 Minerals 84

5 Igneous Rocks 110

6 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks 132


Surface Processes on Earth 160

7 Weathering, Erosion, and Soil 162

8 Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers 192

9 Surface Water 222

10 Groundwater 250

The Atmosphere and the Oceans 278

11 Atmosphere 280

12 Meteorology 312

13 The Nature of Storms 342

14 Climate 374

15 Earth's Oceans 404

16 The Marine Environment 436

The Dynamic Earth 464

17 Plate Tectonics 466

18 Volcanism 498

19 Earthquakes 526

20 Mountain Building 560

Geologic Time 586

21 Fossils and the Rock Record 588

22 The Precambrian Earth 618

23 The Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and

Cenozoic Eras 646

lit 'jl^lHI

Resources and the Environment 674

24 Earth Resources 676

25 Energy Resources 706

26 Human Impact on Resources 732

Beyond Earth 760

27 The Sun-Earth-Moon System 762

28 Our Solar System 794

29 Stars 828

30 Galaxies and the Universe 860

National Geographic Expeditions 890

Student Resources 940

Skillbuilder Handbook 941

Reference Handbook 954

English/Spanish Glossary 966

Index 1004

Credits 1027

About the Authors

Francisco Borrero

Dr. Francisco Borrero is a high school Earth science and Spanish teacher at Cincinnati Country Day School and a research associate and Adjunct Curator of Mollusks at Cincinnati Museum Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. He has taught Earth science and Spanish for over 20 years. Dr. Borrero holds a BS in zoology from Universidad del Valle, Colombia, and MS and PhD degrees in biological sciences from the University of South Carolina at Columbia. Dr. Borrero's research examines the relationship between physical habitat characteristics and the diversity and distribution of natural populations of mollusks.

Frances Hess

Dr. Frances Scelsi Hess teaches Earth science at Cooperstown High School in New York. She received her BS and MS in science from the State University at Oneonta, and her EdD from Columbia University. Dr. Hess is a Fellow of the Science Teachers Association of New York State, and has received numerous teaching awards, including the Phi Delta Kappa Reed Travel Scholarship to Australia and New Zealand.

Dr. Chia Hui (Juno) Hsu currently works as a project scientist at University of California, Irvine. She holds a BS in physics and Earth science from National Taiwan Normal University, an MS in atmospheric sciences from National Taiwan University, and a PhD in atmospheric sciences from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Before beginning her graduate work, Dr. Hsu taught 9th-grade Earth science. Her research interests include the dynamics of monsoons, climate regime shifts, and modeling global-scale atmospheric chemistry.

Dr. Gerhard Kunze is professor emeritus of geology at the University of Akron in Ohio. He has a BS in science and a PhD in geophysics from Penn State University. He was an NRC research associate at Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas from 1973-1974. In 1990, Dr. Kunze was awarded a senior Fulbright scholarship to teach geophysics at the Institute of Geophysics, a department of the University of Kiel in Germany.

Dr. Stephen A. Leslie is an associate professor of geology in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Arkansas in Little Rock. His areas of research include paleontology, stratigraphy, and the evolution of early life on Earth. He has a BS in geology from Bowling Green State University, an MS in geology from the University of Idaho, and a PhD in geology from The Ohio State University.

Stephen Letro has been a meteorologist for the National Weather Service, the media, and private industry since 1971. He currently serves as the Meteorologist-in-Charge of the National Weather Service office in Jacksonville, Florida. He received his BS in meteorology from Florida State University with an emphasis on tropical meteorology. He is a member of the National Hurricane Center's Hurricane Liaison Team, and has received numerous awards, including an award for his role in restructuring the National Weather Service.

Dr. Michael Manga is a professor of Earth and planetary science at U.C. Berkeley. He has a BS in geophysics from McGill University and a PhD in Earth science from Harvard University. His areas of research include vol-canology, the internal evolution and dynamics of planets, and hydrogeology. He is a MacArthur Fellow, and has received the Donath medal from the Geological Society of America and the Macelwane medal from the American Geophysical Union.

Len Sharp taught Earth Science at Liverpool High School, New York, for 30 years. He has a BS in secondary education and an MS in science education from Syracuse University. Mr. Sharp was president of the Science Teachers Association of New York from1991-1992, and president of the National Earth Science Teachers Association from 1992-1994. He was a Presidential Awardee in 1995, and received the 2005 Distinguished Teacher Award from NSTA and the 2006 NAGT—Eastern Section, Outstanding Earth Science Teacher.

Dr. Theodore Snow is a professor of astronomy at the University of Colorado. He has a BA from Yale University, and an MS and PhD from the University of Washington. Dr. Snow is a founder and former director of the Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy at the University of Colorado. Dr. Snow led instrument development programs for space-based telescopes, and is now a member of the Science Team for an ultraviolet spectrograph to be installed aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in early 2008.

Dinah Zike is an international curriculum consultant and inventor who has developed educational products and three-dimensional, interactive graphic organizers for over 30 years. As president and founder of Dinah-Might Adventures, L.P., Dinah is the author of more than 100 award-winning educational publications, including The Big Book of Science. Dinah has a BS and an MS in educational curriculum and instruction from Texas A&M University. Dinah Zike's Foldables are an exclusive feature of McGraw-Hill textbooks.

National Geographic, founded in 1888 for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge, is the world's largest nonprofit scientific and educational organization. The Children's Books and Education Division of National Geographic supports National Geographic's mission by developing innovative educational programs. National Geographic's Visualizing and Expeditions features are exclusive components of Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe.

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  • Ines
    Who is gerhard kunze and what has he done?
    9 years ago

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