Surface water moves materials produced by weathering and shapes the surface of Earth.
Surface Water Movement bed load (p. 228) discharge (p. 229) divide (p. 227) flood (p. 230) floodplain (p. 230) runoff (p. 225) suspension (p. 228) watershed (p. 227)
MAUWJdSa Running water is an agent of erosion, carrying sediments in streams and rivers and depositing them downstream.
• Infiltration of water into the ground depends on the number of open pores.
• All the land area that drains into a stream system is the system's watershed.
• Elevated land areas called divides separate one watershed from another.
• A stream's load is the material the stream carries.
• Flooding occurs in small, localized areas as upstream floods or in large downstream floods.
Stream Development base level (p. 233) delta (p. 236) meander (p. 234) rejuvenation (p. 237) stream bank (p. 232) stream channel (p. 232)
MAU^e Streams erode paths through sediment and rock, forming V-shaped stream valleys.
• Water from precipitation gathers in gullies at a stream's headwaters.
• Stream water flows in channels confined by the stream's banks.
• Alluvial fans and deltas form when stream velocity decreases and sediment is deposited.
• Alluvial fans are fan-shaped and form where water flows down steep slopes onto flat plains.
• Deltas are triangular and form when streams enter wide, relatively quiet bodies of water.
Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands eutrophication (p. 239) lake (p. 238) wetland (p. 240)
lMdN.^333 As the amount of water changes and the amount of sediments increases, lakes can be transformed into wetlands and eventually into dry land.
• Lakes form in a variety of ways when depressions on land fill with water.
• Eutrophication is a natural nutrient-enrichment process that can be accelerated when nutrients from fertilizers, detergents, or sewage are added.
• Wetlands are low-lying areas that are periodically saturated with water and support specific plant species.
244 Chapter 9 • Study Guide Seieneq^ Vocabulary PuzzleMaker glencoe.com
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