Matter and Change

BIG tIdea

The variety of substances on Earth results from the way that atoms are arranged and combined.

3.1 Matter

I^liBRll Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter.

3.2 Combining Matter n^HBRH Atoms combine through electric forces, forming molecules and compounds.

3.3 States of Matter

H^biei All matter on Earth and in the universe occurs in the form of a solid, a liquid, a gas, or plasma.

GeoFacts

Only atmospheres that contain oxygen and water cause iron-bearing objects to rust. Therefore, the equipment that has been left on the Moon will never rust.

Ocher, a red pigment used as a coloring agent, is made from the iron-bearing mineral hematite.

Mars is red because of abundant iron oxide, also known as rust, in the soil.

(tl)Royalty-Free/CORBIS, (cr)Doug Wilson/CORBIS, (br)Royalty-Free/CORBIS, (bkgd)Momatiuk - Eastcott/CORBIS

(tl)Royalty-Free/CORBIS, (cr)Doug Wilson/CORBIS, (br)Royalty-Free/CORBIS, (bkgd)Momatiuk - Eastcott/CORBIS

LAUNCH L

What do fortified cereals contain?

Everything is made up of matter; different types of matter have different properties. Some metals, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel, are attracted to magnets.

Procedure t^

1. Read and complete the lab safety form.

2. Tape a small, strong magnet to the eraser end of a pencil.

3. Pour 250 g of dry, fortified cereal into a small, plastic bag. Smooth the bag as you close it to release excess air.

4. Using a rolling pin, thoroughly crush the cereal in the plastic bag.

5. Pour the crushed cereal into a 250-mL glass beaker. Add 150 mL of tap water to the beaker.

6. Using the pencil-magnet as a stirrer, stir the cereal/water mixture for 10 min, stirring slowly for the last minute.

Remove the stirrer from the mixture and examine the magnet end of the stirrer with a magnifying lens.

Analysis

1. Describe what you see on the magnet.

2. Determine Study the cereal box to determine what the substance on the magnet might be.

States of Matter Make the following Foldable to organize information about the four states of matter on Earth.

STEP 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half lengthwise, and then fold it in half twice more.

STEP 2 Unfold and cut along the folds of the top flap to make four tabs.

STEP 3 Label the tabs as follows: Solids, Liquids, Gases, and Plasma.

STEP 2 Unfold and cut along the folds of the top flap to make four tabs.

Solid;

- "—=

Lipids

Oases

-

IFfiMUIjl* Use this Foldable with Section 3.3

As you read this section, summarize what you learn about the states of matter.

Visit glencoe.com to ^ study entire chapters online;

► explore h Mqjj^ animations:

• Interactive Time Lines

• Interactive Figures

• Interactive Tables

^ access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities;

► review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.

Visit glencoe.com to ^ study entire chapters online;

► explore h Mqjj^ animations:

• Interactive Time Lines

• Interactive Figures

• Interactive Tables

^ access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities;

► review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.

Section 3.1

Objectives

Matter

Section 3.1

Objectives

I Describe an atom and its components. I Relate energy levels of atoms to the chemical properties of elements. I Define the concept of isotopes.

Review Vocabulary atom: the smallest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element

New Vocabulary matter element nucleus proton neutron electron atomic number mass number isotope ion

Matter

I MA N Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter.

Real-World Reading Link Gold, which is often used in jewelry, is so soft that it can be molded, hammered, sculpted, or drawn into wire. Whatever its size or shape, the gold is still gold. Gold is a type of matter.

Atoms

Matter is anything that has volume and mass. Everything in the physical world that surrounds you is composed of matter. On Earth, matter usually occurs as a solid, a liquid, or a gas. All matter is made of substances called elements. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. For example, gold is still gold whether it is a gold brick, coins, or a statue.

Each element has distinct characteristics. You have learned some of the characteristics of the element gold. Although aluminum has different characteristics than gold, both aluminum and gold are elements that are made up of atoms. All atoms consist of even smaller particles—protons, neutrons, and electrons. Figure 3.1 shows one method of representing an atom. The center of an atom is called the nucleus (NEW klee us) (plural, nuclei). The nucleus of an atom is made up of protons and neutrons. A proton is a tiny particle that has mass and a positive electric charge. A neutron is a particle with approximately the same mass as a proton, but it is electrically neutral; that is, it has no electric charge. All atomic nuclei have a positive charge because they are composed of protons with positive electric charges and neutrons with no electric charges.

Figure 3.1 In this representation of an atom, the fuzzy area surrounding the nucleus is referred to as an electron cloud.

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Interactive Figure To see an animation of the electron cloud, visit glencoe.com.

Electron cloud

Figure 3.1 In this representation of an atom, the fuzzy area surrounding the nucleus is referred to as an electron cloud.

Electron cloud

Periodic Table Electron Cloud

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