What Word Would Complete The Circle Below The Words Has Layers Called

14000

10000

6000

Year 1

Year 2

2000 D

Year 3

37. Which year had the most precipitation?

38. What is the general relationship between precipitation and discharge according to the graph?

39. Identify an exception to the general relationship described in Question 38. Suggest a possible explanation for this exception.

Cumulative Review

40. Compare and contrast the ionic bond and the covalent bond. (Chapter 3)

41. What is the significance of the rock cycle? (Chapter 6)

42. List factors that affect the rate of weathering. Underline the factor you think is the most important in chemical weathering and explain why. (Chapter 8)

Chapter Test glencoe.com

Chapter 10 • Assessment 275

Chapter 10 • Assessment 275

Standardized Test Practice

Multiple Choice

1. Which materials would be best suited for lining a pond?

A. gravel C. clay

B. limestone D. sand

Use the concept map to answer Questions 2 and 3.

which include which include

2. What word would complete the circle below the words has layers called?

A. horizons C. levels

B. profiles D. humus

3. The bottom two circles should be filled in with _and_.

A. O horizon; R horizon

B. B horizon; C horizon

C. A level; A profile

D. humus; litter

4. Which is NOT a value of wetlands?

A. feeding lakes and deltas with nutrients and oxygen-rich water

B. filtering water by trapping pollutants, sediments, and pathogenic bacteria

C. providing habitats for migratory birds and other wildlife

D. preserving fossils due to the anaerobic and acidic conditions

5. What is the reaction of water with other substances is known as?

A. aquification C. hydrolysis

B. oxidation D. carbonation

6. Which water sources are the most easily polluted?

A. water-table aquifers

B. confined aquifers

C. artesian wells

D. hot springs

Use the table below to answer Questions 7 and <

Year

Erosion (meters)

2001

2

2002

18

2003

7

2004

5

Which could have caused the unusual level of sand loss in 2002 as shown in the table?

A. lower than usual tides

B. higher than usual tides

C. lower than usual storm activity

D. higher than usual storm activity

What human intervention could have caused the drop in erosion from 2002 to 2003?

A. dune building

B. removing dune vegetation

C. constructing buildings along the coast

D. building fences along the coast

9. What are natural structures hanging from a cave's ceiling?

A. geyserites

B. travertines

C. stalagmites

D. stalactites

10. In which part of a meander does the water travel the fastest?

A. along the inside curve of the meander

B. along the bottom of the meander

C. along the outside curve of a meander

D. all parts of the meander are equal

Short Answer

Use the illustration below to answer Questions 11-13.

11. Explain the process being illustrated. Be sure to include the name of the process.

12. Why are there two arrows rising during the stage labeled with the letter A?

13. What process is occurring from Step C to Step D?

14. How does the silica tetrahedron benefit silicate minerals?

15. What is the risk with overpumping a well?

16. How can human activities trigger mass movements?

Reading for Comprehension

Living Caves

Cool air billowed from a crack in Arizona's desert and lured cave hunters underground. There, formations of rock sprouted from the ground and hung from the ceiling. The explorers discovered a so-called living cave. Tufts and Tenen were the first known to set foot in the Kartchner Caverns, which are among the world's top show caves. The caverns are living, a term used to describe active caves. "The cave formations still have water on them; they're still continuing to grow," said Rick Toomey, a staff scientist at the Kartchner Caverns in Benson. Rainwater from the surface seeps through the ground, absorbing calcium carbonate along the way. Inside the cave, the mixture drips from the ceiling. As it hardens, it forms the icicle-like stalactites on the ceiling and sproutlike stalagmites on the floor. With the exception of small cracks, the caverns are closed off to the outside world. The isolation allows the caverns to maintain an average temperature of 20°Celsius and near 99 percent humidity.

Article obtained from: Roach, J. Arizona tried tourism to save 'living cave.' National Geographic News. April 19, 2005.

17. According to the passage, what makes a cavern living?

A. There are animals in the cave.

B. People can go into the cave.

C. There are plants in the cave.

D. Water on the cave formations continues to grow.

18. What is the first ingredient in the process that allows the stalactites and stalagmites to grow as listed in the text?

A. soil C. calcium carbonate

B. rainwater D. rocks

19. What can be inferred from this passage?

A. Arizona is the only state that has living caves.

B. The temperature in the caves is quite cold.

C. Being isolated from the world has protected the cave.

D. Tufts and Tenen were the first people to discover a cave.

NEED EXTRA HELP?

If You Missed Question . . .

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2

3

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6

7

8

9

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11

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Review Section . . .

10.1

7.3

7.3

9.3

7.1

10.3

7.2

8.2

10.2

9.2

9.1

9.1

9.1

4.2

10.2

Standardized Test Practice glencoe.com

Chapter 10 • Assessment 277

Chapter 11

Atmosphere

IBMlIKER! The composition, structure, and properties of Earth's atmosphere form the basis of Earth's weather and climate.

Chapter 12

Meteorology

IBMlIK&f Weather patterns can be observed, analyzed, and predicted.

Chapter 13

The Nature of Storms

IBMfTOCT The exchange of thermal energy in the atmosphere sometimes occurs with great violence that varies in form, size, and duration.

Chapter 14

Climate

IBMfTOCT The different climates on Earth are influenced by natural factors as well as human activities.

Chapter 15

Earth's Oceans

BIG (Idea

Studying oceans helps scientists learn about global climate and Earth's history.

Chapter 16

The Marine Environment

IBMlIMM The marine environment is geologically diverse and contains a wealth of natural resources.

Chapter 11

Atmosphere

IBMlIKER! The composition, structure, and properties of Earth's atmosphere form the basis of Earth's weather and climate.

Chapter 14

Climate

IBMfTOCT The different climates on Earth are influenced by natural factors as well as human activities.

Studying oceans helps scientists learn about global climate and Earth's history.

Chapter 16

The Marine Environment

IBMlIMM The marine environment is geologically diverse and contains a wealth of natural resources.

CAREERS IN EARTH SCIENCE Marine

Scientist: This marine scientist is studying a young manatee to learn more about its interaction with the environment. Marine sci entists study the ocean to classify and conserve underwater life.

CZEEZ^^arth Science

Visit glencoe.com to learn more about marine scientists. Then prepare a brief report or media presentation about a marine scientist's recent trip to a coral reef.

BIG tIdea

The composition, structure, and properties of Earth's atmosphere form the basis of Earth's weather and climate.

BIG tIdea

The composition, structure, and properties of Earth's atmosphere form the basis of Earth's weather and climate.

11.1 Atmospheric Basics m<m Energy is transferred throughout Earth's atmosphere.

11.2 Properties of the Atmosphere fT^HEEH Atmospheric properties, such as temperature, air pressure, and humidity describe weather conditions.

11.3 Clouds and Precipitation

Hansen Clouds vary in shape, size, height of formation, and type of precipitation.

GeoFacts

Cirrus clouds are named for the Latin word meaning hair because they often appear wispy and hairlike.

High cirrus clouds are often pushed along by the jet stream and can move at speeds exceeding 160 km/h.

Clouds can appear gray or even black if they are high enough in the atmosphere, or dense enough that light cannot penetrate them.

Water molecule r i , t

LAUNCH L

What causes cloud formation?

Clouds form when water vapor in the air condenses into water droplets or ice. These clouds might produce rain, snow, hail, sleet, or freezing rain.

Procedure ^ EH IC

1. Read and complete the lab safety form.

2. Pour about 125 mL of warm water into a clear, plastic bowl.

3. Loosely cover the top of the bowl with plastic wrap. Overlap the edges of the bowl by about 5 cm.

4. Fill a self-sealing plastic bag with ice cubes, seal it, and place it in the center of the plastic wrap on top of the bowl. Push the bag of ice down so that the plastic wrap sags in the center but does not touch the surface of the water.

5. Use tape to seal the plastic wrap around the bowl.

6. Observe the surface of the plastic wrap directly under the ice cubes every 10 min for 30 min, or until the ice melts.

Analysis

1. Infer What formed on the underside of the wrap? Why did this happen?

2. Relate your observations to processes in the atmosphere.

3. Predict what would happen if you repeated this activity with hot water in the bowl.

Layers of the Atmosphere

Make the following Foldable to organize information about the layers of Earth's atmosphere.

STEP 1 Collect three sheets of paper, and layer them about 2 cm apart vertically.

laMliMli* Use this Foldable with Section 11.1.

Sketch the layers on the first tab and summarize information about each layer on the appropriate tabs.

Visit glencoe.com to ^ study entire chapters online;

► explore h Mqjj^ animations:

• Interactive Time Lines

• Interactive Figures

• Interactive Tables

^ access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities;

► review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.

Science

Visit glencoe.com to ^ study entire chapters online;

► explore h Mqjj^ animations:

• Interactive Time Lines

• Interactive Figures

• Interactive Tables

^ access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities;

► review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.

Section 11.1

Objectives

I Describe the gas and particle composition of the atmosphere.

I Compare and contrast the five layers of the atmosphere.

I Identify three ways energy is transferred in the atmosphere.

Review Vocabulary atmosphere: the layer of gases that surrounds Earth

New Vocabulary troposphere stratosphere mesosphere thermosphere exosphere radiation conduction convection

Figure 11.1 Earth's atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent).

Composition of Earth's Atmosphere

Argon Carbon 0.93% dioxide 0.038%

Figure 11.1 Earth's atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent).

Composition of Earth's Atmosphere

Trace gases 0.01%

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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  • Sara
    What word would complete the circle below the words has layers called?
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    What word would complete the circl below the word has layers called?
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